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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 2/13/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Thin Asians at Risk for Diabetes Due to Hidden Body Fat - Medscape, 2/11/13 - "Japanese American women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with diabetes as whites, despite having lower body-mass indexes (BMIs) ... Indians are often diagnosed with diabetes 10 years earlier and 5- to 10-units BMI thinner than whites ... Both believe the explanation lies in "hidden" visceral fat found inside the body, between organs, in Asians and probably other ethnic groups too, but not in whites. This in turn affects the levels of adipokines secreted, such as leptin and adiponectin, which can have adverse metabolic effects ... Overall, Japanese women had significantly lower BMIs (23.7 vs 25.3 kg/m2), leptin (15.0 vs 25.9 ng/mL), and adiponectin (11.7 vs 16.0 µg/mL) than whites ... one factor he believes may be playing an important role in India is vegetarianism. People there consume high amounts of folate but are deficient in vitamin B12, creating a low-B12/high-folate intrauterine environment that "produces babies who are mostly insulin resistant."" - See my adiponectin page for ways to increase it.  The way I understand it, leptin just decreases appetite.  If a person is already thin I wouldn't think it would affect visceral fat.

Exercise linked with reduced prostate cancer risk in Caucasians but not African-Americans - Science Daily, 2/11/13 - "Lionel L. Bañez, MD, of the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and his colleagues asked 307 men (164 white; 143 black) undergoing a prostate biopsy to complete a survey that assessed their exercise amounts per week ... Among Caucasians, men who were moderately or highly active were 53% less likely to have biopsy results indicating that they had prostate cancer compared with men who were sedentary or mildly active ... Among men with cancer, those who exercised had a 13% reduced risk of having high grade disease"

Fish oil may protect dialysis patients from sudden cardiac death - Science Daily, 2/6/13 - "We found that higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the blood of patients who were just starting hemodialysis were very strongly associated with a lower risk of sudden cardiac death over the first year of their treatment ... The five-year survival rate for patients on hemodialysis is 35 percent, with the risk of death highest in the first few months of starting treatment. The most common cause of death in these patients is sudden cardiac death, which accounts for about one out of every four deaths" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

CKD and Low Magnesium: Pay Attention - Medscape, 2/6/13 - "When adjusted for differences in age and sex among quartiles, the lowest magnesium group had the highest incidence of new atrial fibrillation events (9.4 episodes per 1000 person-years). The rates for the other 3 quartiles were quite similar (6.9, 7.1, and 6.3 events per 1000 person-years for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively). In multivariable models controlled for the multiple potential differences including glomerular filtration rate, those with the lowest levels of magnesium continued to be at highest risk for the development of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.02- 2.14; P = .04)" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.

Smoking marijuana associated with higher stroke risk in young adults - Science Daily, 2/6/13 - "In a New Zealand study, ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients were 2.3 times more likely to have cannabis, also known as marijuana, detected in urine tests as other age and sex matched patients ... People need to think twice about using cannabis," because it can affect brain development and result in emphysema, heart attack and now stroke"

Re-Analysis Refutes Diet Guidelines Favoring Vegetable Fats - WebMD, 2/6/13 - "The first group was told to consume linoleic acid, in the form of safflower oil and safflower oil polyunsaturated margarine, at levels equal to 15 percent of total calorie intake. This, said Ramsden, is equivalent to roughly twice the amount that Americans currently consume ... While omega-3 consumption was not affected, the men were also asked to lower their saturated fat intake so that it made up less than 10 percent of their diets. They did so by substituting safflower oil for animal fats ... The second group continued their routine nutritional habits ... By newly crunching all the original data the NIH team found that, compared to the no-dietary-change group, the linoleic acid group faced a higher risk of death, from both heart disease specifically as well as from all causes overall ... the NIH team found no evidence to support the notion that linoleic acid confers health benefits. The review highlighted the possibility that boosting omega-6 consumption may actually increase the risk for developing heart disease ... Polyunsaturates are not just involved in cholesterol-lowering. They may also be involved in inflammation, oxidation or clotting"

LA - Linoleic Acid ALA or LNA - Alpha linolenic acid Oleic acid
GLA - Gamma linolenic acid EPA - Eicosapentaenoic acid
DGLA - Dihomo gamma-linolenic Acid DHA - Docosahexaenoic acid  
AA - Arachidonic Acid DPA (omega 3) - Docosapentaenoic acid
DTA - Docosatetraenoic acid    
DPA -  (omega 6) Docosapentaenoic

Twenty Hours of TV a Week Linked to Almost Half Sperm Count of Those Who Watch Little TV - Science Daily, 2/5/13 - "Healthy young men who watch TV for more than 20 hours a week have almost half the sperm count of men who watch very little TV ... Conversely, men who do 15 or more hours of moderate to vigorous exercise every week have sperm counts that are 73% higher than those who exercise little ... light physical exercise made no difference to the sperm count, no matter how frequent it was"

Green tea and red wine extracts interrupt Alzheimer's disease pathway in cells - Science Daily, 2/5/13 - "They were able to interrupt this pathway using the purified extracts of EGCG from green tea and resveratrol from red wine ... Alzheimer's disease is characterised by a distinct build-up of amyloid protein in the brain, which clumps together to form toxic, sticky balls of varying shapes. These amyloid balls latch on to the surface of nerve cells in the brain by attaching to proteins on the cell surface called prions, causing the nerve cells to malfunction and eventually die ... The team formed amyloid balls in a test tube and added them to human and animal brain cells ... When we added the extracts from red wine and green tea, which recent research has shown to re-shape amyloid proteins, the amyloid balls no longer harmed the nerve cells" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com and resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D, omega-3 may help clear amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 2/5/13 - "Our new study sheds further light on a possible role for nutritional substances such as vitamin D3 and omega-3 in boosting immunity to help fight Alzheimer's ... The team incubated the immune cells overnight with amyloid-beta. They added either an active form of vitamin D3 called 1alpha,25–dihydroxyvitamin D3 or an active form of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA called resolvin D1 to some of the cells to gauge the effect they had on inflammation and amyloid-beta absorption ... Both 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and resolvin D1 improved the ability of the Alzheimer's disease patients' macrophages to gobble-up amyloid-beta, and they inhibited the cell death that is induced by amyloid-beta. Researchers observed that each nutrition molecule utilized different receptors and common signaling pathways to do this"

 Some omega-3 oils better than others for protection against liver disease - Science Daily, 2/5/13 - "EPA had comparatively little effect on preventing the fibrosis, or scarring, that's associated with NASH. However, DHA supplementation reduced the proteins involved in liver fibrosis by more than 65 percent ... A reduction of that magnitude in the actual scarring and damage to the liver is very important ... DHA was more effective than EPA at attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and hepatic damage" -  Note:  I take both.  See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

It actually is better (and healthier) to give than to receive, study finds - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "when dealing with stressful situations, those who had helped others during the previous year were less likely to die than those who had not helped others ... Self-reported stressful experiences included such things as serious, non-life-threating illness, burglary, job loss, financial difficulties or death of a family member ... Respondents also reported the total amount of time in the past 12 months they had spent helping friends, neighbors or relatives who did not live with them by providing transportation, doing errands and shopping, performing housework, providing child care and other tasks ... the Cox proportional hazard models (the most widely used method of survival analysis) for mortality revealed a significant interaction between helping behavior, stressful events, morbidity and mortality"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Decreased Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Are Associated With Increased Risk of Progression to Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2013 Feb 7 - "In a historical prospective cohort study of subjects from the Clalit Health Services database, which includes information on nearly 4 million people, diabetes-free subjects aged 40-70 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) measurements available were followed up for 2 years to assess the development of IFG and diabetes in five 25-OHD subgroups: ≥25, 25.1-37.5, 37.6-50, 50.1-75, and >75 nmol/L ... The odds of transitioning from normoglycemia to IFG, from normoglycemia to diabetes, and from IFG to diabetes in subjects with a 25-OHD level ≤25 nmol/L were greater than those of subjects with a 25-OHD level >75 nmol/L [odds ratio 1.13 (95% CI 1.03-1.24), 1.77 (1.11-2.83), and 1.43 (1.16-1.76), respectively] ... Vitamin D deficiency appears to be an independent risk factor for the development of IFG and diabetes" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

U-Shape Association Between Hemoglobin A1c and Late Mortality in Patients With Heart Failure After Cardiac Surgery - Am J Cardiol. 2013 Feb 4 - "Patients with and without New York Heart Association class III or IV heart failure were divided into quartiles according to the preoperative HbA1c level ... After adjusting for confounders, the patients without heart failure and with HbA1c ≤5.7% had the lowest risk of death. In patients with preoperative heart failure, we found a U-shaped association between HbA1c levels and late mortality, with those patients with HbA1c levels of 5.8% to 6.2% having the lowest risk of death. HbA1c levels ≤5.7% and ≥7.2% were associated with statistically significant greater risks of death"

Serum Folate but Not Vitamin B-12 Concentrations Are Positively Associated with Cognitive Test Scores in Children Aged 6-16 Years - J Nutr. 2013 Feb 6 - "Serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured, along with performance, on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised ... serum concentrations of folate were associated with higher reading and block design scores after adjusting for various covariates. For example, compared with the lowest quartile of folate, children in the highest quartile scored 3.28 points or 0.19 SD units higher on the reading test (P < 0.05). Vitamin B-12 was not associated with any of the test scores. In the largest study to date, higher folate concentrations were associated with better reading and block design scores" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.

Soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk in Japan: From the takayama study - Int J Cancer. 2013 Feb 6 - "We assessed the associations of soy and isoflavone intake with breast cancer incidence in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were members from the Takayama study, aged 35 years or older in 1992 ... Soy and isoflavone intakes were assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire ... The relative risks of postmenopausal breast cancer were lower among women with higher intakes of soy (trend p=0.023) and isoflavone (trend p=0.046), although the relative risks of premenopausal breast cancer were not associated with intakes of soy and isoflavone. Decreased risks of breast cancer were found even among women with a moderate intake of soy and isoflavone. These results suggested that soy and isoflavone intake have a protective effect on postmenopausal breast cancer"

Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content - Br J Nutr. 2013 Feb 7:1-7 - "Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h to depress muscle protein synthesis. Immediately after exercise, the animals were administered either carbohydrate (CHO), CHO plus an amino acid mixture (AA) or CHO plus WPH. At 1 h after exercise, the supplements containing whey-based protein (AA and WPH) caused a significant increase in the fractional rate of protein synthesis (FSR) compared with CHO ... These results indicate that WPH may include active components that are superior to amino acids for stimulating muscle protein synthesis and initiating translation" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.

Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Feb 6 - "Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness ... doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes ... In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts" - Note:  I'm wondering why they chose such a low dose.  That's not even the amount of omega-3 in the average capsule on one good fish oil capsule.  See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Alleviation of chronic pain following rat spinal cord compression injury with multimodal actions of huperzine A - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb - "Compared with controls, HUP-A treatment demonstrates significant analgesic effects in both regimens. SCI rats manifested no drug tolerance following repeated bolus i.p. or chronic intrathecal HUP-A dosing. The pain-ameliorating effect of HUP-A is cholinergic dependent. Relative to vehicle treatment, HUP-A administration also reduced neural inflammation, retained higher numbers of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, and prevented Homer1a up-regulation in dorsal horn sensory neurons. Therefore, HUP-A may provide safe and effective management for chronic postneurotrauma pain by reestablishing homeostasis of sensory circuits" - See huperzine products at iHerb.

Folate deficiency is associated with oxidative stress, increased blood pressure, and insulin resistance in spontaneously hypertensive rats - Am J Hypertens. 2013 Jan;26(1):135-40 - "we analyzed the role of folate deficiency in pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) ... Folate deficiency also increased systolic blood pressure by approximately 15mm Hg ... These findings demonstrate that the SHR model is susceptible to the adverse metabolic and hemodynamic effects of low dietary intake of folate. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that folate deficiency can promote oxidative stress and multiple features of the metabolic syndrome that are associated with increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.

Plasma total testosterone and incident cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients - Am J Hypertens. 2013 Mar;26(3):373-81 - "Hypertension, a major contributory factor to the development of cardiovascular disease, has also been associated with increased prevalence of low testosterone. We investigated whether low androgen concentration predicts incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in middle-aged nondiabetic hypertensive patients without clinical atherosclerosis ... total testosterone (TT) ... Compared to patients who did not experience MACE, hypertensive subjects who developed MACE had lower TT concentration (3.9+/-0.7ng/ml vs. 4.6+/-1.5ng/ml, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of hypogonadism (36% vs. 16%, P < 0.05). Subjects in the lowest TT tertile (<4.0ng/ml) had a statistically significant higher risk of MACE compared to those in the highest tertile (>4.9ng/ml) in multivariate Cox models adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure, and risk factors (all P < 0.05). A TT plasma level of 5.04ng/ml was associated with a negative predictive value (ability to "rule out" MACE) of 97.2%. Addition of TT to standard risk factors model yielded a net reclassification improvement of 38.8 % (P < 0.05)"

Health Focus (Dangers of Fructose):

News & Research:

  • Fructose has different effect than glucose on brain regions that regulate appetite - Science Daily, 1/1/13 - "ingestion of glucose but not fructose reduced cerebral blood flow and activity in brain regions that regulate appetite, and ingestion of glucose but not fructose produced increased ratings of satiety and fullness"
  • Weekly soft drink consumption bubbles up knee osteoarthritis; especially in men - Science Daily, 11/11/12 - "men who consumed more soft drinks per week had worse knee OA progression. The joint space became narrower by an average of 0.29 millimeters in men who drank no soft drinks to 0.59 millimeters in men who drank more than five soft drinks a week. Interestingly, men with lower BMI, less than 27.5 kg/m2, showed more knee OA progression with increased soft-drink consumption than men who had higher BMI scores. By contrast, only women in the lowest BMI segment of the study, less than 27.3kg/m2, showed an association between more soft-drink consumption and knee OA progression"
  • Eating lots of carbs, sugar may raise risk of cognitive impairment - Science Daily, 10/16/12 - "People 70 and older who eat food high in carbohydrates have nearly four times the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment, and the danger also rises with a diet heavy in sugar, Mayo Clinic researchers have found. Those who consume a lot of protein and fat relative to carbohydrates are less likely to become cognitively impaired ... Researchers tracked 1,230 people ages 70 to 89 who provided information on what they ate during the previous year ... A high carbohydrate intake could be bad for you because carbohydrates impact your glucose and insulin metabolism"
  • Increased dietary fructose linked to elevated uric acid levels and lower liver energy stores - Science Daily, 9/13/12 - "increased dietary fructose can alter the body's metabolism and energy balance. Energy depletion in the liver may be associated with liver injury in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and in those at risk for developing this metabolic condition ... For the present study, 244 obese and diabetic adults from the Look AHEAD Study were evaluated, with dietary fructose consumption estimated by the food frequency questionnaire ... "High fructose consumption and elevated levels of uric acid are associated with more severe depletion of liver ATP. Our findings suggest that increased dietary fructose intake may impair liver "energy balance." Further research to define the clinical implications of these findings on metabolism and NAFLD is necessary.""
  • New evidence in fructose debate: Could it be healthy for us? - Science Daily, 6/21/12 - "fructose may not be as bad for us as previously thought and that it may even provide some benefit ... this research suggests that the problem is likely one of overconsumption, not fructose ... The study reviewed 18 trials with 209 participants who had Type 1 and 2 diabetes and found fructose significantly improved their blood sugar control. The improvement was equivalent to what can be achieved with an oral antidiabetic drug ... We're seeing that there may be benefit if fructose wasn't being consumed in such large amounts ... All negative attention on fructose-related harm draws further away from the issue of eating too many calories" - [Abstract]
  • This is your brain on sugar: Study in rats shows high-fructose diet sabotages learning, memory - Science Daily, 5/15/12 - "Binging on soda and sweets for as little as six weeks may make you stupid ... Eating a high-fructose diet over the long term alters your brain's ability to learn and remember information. But adding omega-3 fatty acids to your meals can help minimize the damage ... studied two groups of rats that each consumed a fructose solution as drinking water for six weeks. The second group also received omega-3 fatty acids in the form of flaxseed oil and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which protects against damage to the synapses -- the chemical connections between brain cells that enable memory and learning ... DHA is essential for synaptic function -- brain cells' ability to transmit signals to one another ... Our findings suggest that consuming DHA regularly protects the brain against fructose's harmful effects" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Soda consumption increases overall stroke risk - Science Daily, 4/20/12 - "The research analyzed soda consumption among 43,371 men who participated in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study between 1986 and 2008, and 84,085 women who participated in the Nurses' Health Study between 1980 and 2008 ... In sugar-sweetened sodas, the sugar load may lead to rapid increases in blood glucose and insulin which, over time, may lead to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and inflammation. These physiologic changes influence atherosclerosis, plaque stability and thrombosis -- all of which are risk factors of ischemic stroke ... In comparison, coffee contains chlorogenic acids, lignans and magnesium, all of which act as antioxidants and may reduce stroke risk. When compared with one serving of sugar-sweetened soda, one serving of decaffeinated coffee was associated with a 10 percent lower risk of stroke"
  • Sugar-sweetened drinks linked to increased risk of heart disease in men - Science Daily, 3/1/12 - "Men who drank a 12-ounce sugar-sweetened beverage a day had a 20 percent higher risk of heart disease compared to men who didn't drink any sugar-sweetened drinks"
  • Research offers insight to how fructose causes obesity and other illness - Science Daily, 2/27/12
  • High fizzy soft drink consumption linked to violence among teens - Science Daily, 10/25/11 - "heavy use of carbonated non-diet soft drinks was significantly associated with carrying a gun or knife, and violence towards peers, family members and partners ... When the findings were divided into four categories of consumption, the results showed a clear dose-response relationship across all four measures ... There may be a direct cause-and-effect-relationship, perhaps due to the sugar or caffeine content of soft drinks, or there may be other factors, unaccounted for in our analyses, that cause both high soft drink consumption and aggression"
  • Dietary Fructose and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults - Medscape, 9/28/11 - "in our study the association between dietary fructose and metabolic syndrome and its components was observed only in the third and fourth quartiles of fructose intakes, approximately over 8 and 12% of energy intake (> 50 g/d); while dietary intake of fructose from natural sources including fruits and vegetables, even in the fourth quartile of fructose intakes was only 5% of energy, approximately 30 g/d. Thus, the increased risk of metabolic syndrome and its components may be attributed to increase fructose intake from industrialized foods"
  • Sugar-sweetened drinks associated with higher blood pressure - Science Daily, 3/1/11 - "for every extra sugar-sweetened beverage drunk per day participants on average had significantly higher systolic blood pressure by 1.6 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure higher by 0.8 mm Hg ... They found no consistent association between diet soda intake and blood pressure levels. Those who drank diet soda had higher mean BMI than those who did not and lower levels of physical activity ... One possible mechanism for sugar-sweetened beverages and fructose increasing blood pressure levels is a resultant increase in the level of uric acid in the blood that may in turn lower the nitric oxide required to keep the blood vessels dilated. Sugar consumption also has been linked to enhanced sympathetic nervous system activity and sodium retention"
  • Highest Mortality Risk Seen With High-Fat Dairy and High Sugar Intake - Medscape, 12/23/10 - "Compared to people who ate healthy foods, men and women in their 70s had a 40% higher risk of death if they got most of their calories from high-fat dairy foods or from sweets and desserts" - I'd take that one study with a grain of salt.  In regard to dairy, it contradicts this analysis of many studies.
    • Milk and dairy consumption and incidence of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;93(1):158-71 - "PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS were searched for articles published up to February 2010. Of >5000 titles evaluated, 17 met the inclusion criteria, all of which were original prospective cohort studies ... A modest inverse association was found between milk intake and risk of overall CVD [4 studies; relative risk (RR): 0.94 per 200 mL/d; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99]. Milk intake was not associated with risk of CHD (6 studies; RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.04), stroke (6 studies; RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.05), or total mortality (8 studies; RR per 200 mL/d: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.03). Limited studies of the association of total dairy products and of total high-fat and total low-fat dairy products (per 200 g/d) with CHD showed no significant associations"
  • Excess fructose may play role in diabetes, obesity and other health conditions - Science Daily, 11/22/10 - "The link between excessive intake of fructose and metabolic syndrome is becoming increasingly established. However, in this review of the literature, the authors conclude that there is also increasing evidence that fructose may play a role in hypertension and renal disease. "Science shows us there is a potentially negative impact of excessive amounts of sugar and high fructose corn syrup on cardiovascular and kidney health," explains Dr. Johnson. He continues that "excessive fructose intake could be viewed as an increasingly risky food and beverage additive.""
  • Fructose-rich beverages associated with increased risk of gout in women - Science Daily, 11/10/10 - "Compared with consumption of less than 1 serving per month, women who consumed one serving per day had a 74 percent increased risk of gout; and those with 2 or more servings per day had a 2.4 times higher risk ... Orange juice intake was also associated with risk of gout. Compared with women who consumed less than a glass (6 oz.) of orange juice per month, women who consumed 1 serving per day had a 41 percent higher risk of gout, and there was a 2.4 times higher risk with 2 or more servings per day"
  • Pancreatic cancers use fructose, common in the Western diet, to fuel their growth - Science Daily, 8/2/10 - "The bottom line is the modern diet contains a lot of refined sugar including fructose and it's a hidden danger implicated in a lot of modern diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and fatty liver ... the pancreatic cancer cells could easily distinguish between glucose and fructose even though they are very similar structurally, and contrary to conventional wisdom, the cancer cells metabolized the sugars in very different ways. In the case of fructose, the pancreatic cancer cells used the sugar in the transketolase-driven non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to generate nucleic acids, the building blocks of RNA and DNA, which the cancer cells need to divide and proliferate"
  • High fructose diet may contribute to high blood pressure, study finds - Science Daily, 7/1/10 - "people who consumed a diet of 74 grams or more per day of fructose (corresponding to 2.5 sugary soft drinks per day) had a 26%, 30%, and 77% higher risk for blood pressure levels of 135/85, 140/90, and 160/100 mmHg, respectively. (A normal blood pressure reading is below 120/80 mmHg.)"
  • High fructose, trans fats lead to significant liver disease, says study - Science Daily, 6/22/10 - "mice fed the normal calorie chow diet remained lean and did not have fatty liver disease. Mice fed high calorie diets (trans-fat alone or a combination of trans-fat and high fructose) became obese and had fatty liver disease ... it was only the group fed the combination of trans-fat and high fructose which developed the advanced fatty liver disease which had fibrosis ... This same group also had increased oxidative stress in the liver, increased inflammatory cells, and increased levels of plasma oxidative stress markers"
  • Fructose sugar makes maturing human fat cells fatter, less insulin-sensitive, study finds - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "high levels of fructose, which may result from eating a diet high in fructose, throughout childhood may lead to an increase in visceral [abdominal] obesity, which is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk ... For both types of fat cells, maturation in fructose decreased the cells' insulin sensitivity, which is the ability to successfully take up glucose from the bloodstream into fat and muscles. Decreased insulin sensitivity is a characteristic of Type 2 diabetes"
  • Drinking fewer sugar-sweetened beverages may lower blood pressure - Science Daily, 5/24/10 - ""Our findings suggest that reducing sugar-sweetened beverages and sugar consumption may be an important dietary strategy to lower blood pressure and further reduce other blood pressure-related diseases," Chen said. "It has been estimated that a 3-millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) reduction in systolic blood pressure should reduce stroke mortality by 8 percent and coronary heart disease mortality by 5 percent. Such reductions in systolic blood pressure would be anticipated by reducing sugar-sweetened beverages consumption by an average of 2 servings per day ... a reduction of one serving/day of SSB was associated with a 1.8 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) drop in systolic pressure and a 1.1 mm Hg decline in diastolic pressure over 18 months"
  • Study: Too Much Sugar Increases Heart Risks - Time Magazine, 4/21/10 - "Compared with people consuming less than 5% of their daily calories in added sugar, those in the highest consumption group — who got 25% or more of their daily calories in added sugar — were twice as likely to have low levels of HDL cholesterol, the beneficial lipid that mops up artery-clogging LDL cholesterol. According to government health guidelines, HDL levels below 50 mg/dL for women and 40 mg/dL for men are considered low; 43% of the highest sugar consumers recorded low HDL, while only 22% of the lowest sugar consumers did ... People eating the most added sugar also recorded the highest triglyceride levels ... Low HDL and high triglyceride levels are two of the primary risk factors for heart disease"
  • High fructose corn syrup linked to liver scarring, research suggests - Science Daily, 3/22/10 - "The researchers found only 19 percent of adults with NAFLD reported no intake of fructose-containing beverages, while 52 percent consumed between one and six servings a week and 29 percent consumed fructose-containing beverages on a daily basis"
  • High-fructose corn syrup prompts considerably more weight gain, researchers find - Science Daily, 3/22/10
  • Drinking sugar-sweetened beverages daily linked to diabetes - Science Daily, 3/6/10 - "Using the Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model, a well-established computer simulation model of the national population age 35 and older, researchers estimate that the increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages between 1990 and 2000 contributed to 130,000 new cases of diabetes, 14,000 new cases of coronary heart disease (CHD), and 50,000 additional life-years burdened by coronary heart disease over the past decade"
  • Soft drink consumption may markedly increase risk of pancreatic cancer - Science Daily, 2/8/10 - "Consuming two or more soft drinks per week increased the risk of developing pancreatic cancer by nearly twofold compared to individuals who did not consume soft drinks" - [Abstract]
  • High Fructose Intake Linked to Metabolic Syndrome, Kidney Disease - Science Daily, 1/14/10 - "men who were randomized to receive 200 g fructose daily for 2 weeks without or without allopurinol ... Fructose intake was associated with an average increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 7 and 5 mm Hg, respectively ... Mean fasting triglyceride levels rose by 0.62 mmol/L (p < 0.002), while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels fell by 0.06 mmol/L ... the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased by 25% to 33%"
  • Sugary cola drinks linked to higher risk of gestational diabetes - Science Daily, 11/30/09
  • High Fructose Corn Syrup: A Recipe For Hypertension, Study Finds - Science Daily, 11/10/09 - "people who ate or drank more than 74 grams per day of fructose (2.5 sugary soft drinks per day) increased their risk of developing hypertension. Specifically, a diet of more than 74 grams per day of fructose led to a 28%, 36%, and 87% higher risk for blood pressure levels of 135/85, 140/90, and 160/100 mmHg, respectively. (A normal blood pressure reading is below 120/80 mmHg.)"
  • High Fructose Intake May Raise Blood Pressure - WebMD, 11/2/09 - "About 2.5 sugary soft drinks a day is enough to elevate the pressure ... Overall, intakes of 74 grams or more daily was associated with a 36% higher risk of having blood pressure of 140/90 or higher, she found. Ideally, blood pressure should be below 120/80 ... ''We know that fructose has the potential to reduce nitric oxide production within the blood vessels,'' she says. "Nitric oxide relaxes the vessel and is supposed to lower blood pressure. Fructose reduces the production of nitric oxide and makes it difficult for the vessels to relax and dilate." ... Fructose also raises uric acid in the blood, she says, and that could raise blood pressure. "Fructose can tell the kidneys to 'hold onto' more salt, and that can contribute to high blood pressure,""
  • Health Buzz: Fructose-Heavy Diet Linked to Hypertension and Other Health News - US News and World Report, 9/24/09 - "A small study is among the first to show that regular consumption of fructose-heavy foods and drinks might raise blood pressure—at least in men"
  • Heat Forms Potentially Harmful Substance In High-fructose Corn Syrup - Science Daily, 8/26/09
  • Eating High Levels Of Fructose Impairs Memory In Rats - Science Daily, 7/16/09 - "What we discovered is that the fructose diet doesn't affect their ability to learn ... But they can't seem to remember as well where the platform was when you take it away. They swam more randomly than rats fed a control diet"
  • Fructose-Sweetened Beverages Linked to Heart Risks - NYTimes.com, 4/23/09 - "a controlled and randomized study has found that drinks sweetened with fructose led to higher blood levels of L.D.L, or "bad" cholesterol, and triglycerides in overweight test subjects, while drinks sweetened with another sugar, glucose, did not. Both L.D.L. and triglycerides have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease"
  • Fresh Take on Fructose vs. Glucose - WebMD, 4/21/09 - "Both the groups gained weight during the trial, but imaging studies revealed that most of the added fat in the fructose group occurred in the belly, while most of the fat gained by the glucose group was subcutaneous (under the skin) ... Belly fat, but not subcutaneous fat, has been linked to an increased risk for heart disease and diabetes ... The fructose group had higher total cholesterol and LDL "bad" cholesterol, plus greater insulin resistance, which are consistent with metabolic syndrome, while the glucose group did not"
  • High fructose corn syrup: How dangerous is it? - MSNBC, 4/17/09
  • Fructose Metabolism By The Brain Increases Food Intake And Obesity, Review Suggests - Science Daily, 3/25/09
  • Not So Sweet: Over-consumption Of Sugar Linked To Aging - Science Daily, 3/9/09 - "We know that lifespan can be extended in animals by restricting calories such as sugar intake ...it's not sugar itself that is important in this process but the ability of cells to sense its presence ... the lifespan of yeast cells increased when glucose was decreased from their diet. They then asked whether the increase in lifespan was due to cells decreasing their ability to produce energy or to the decrease in signal to the cells by the glucose sensor ... cells unable to consume glucose as energy source are still sensitive to the pro-aging effects of glucose. Conversely, obliterating the sensor that measures the levels of glucose significantly increased lifespan"
  • Why Diets High In High-fructose Corn Syrup (found In Soda And Processed Foods) Can Lead To Insulin Resistance - Science Daily, 3/3/09 - "mice on a high-fructose diet were protected from insulin resistance when a gene known as transcriptional coactivator PPARg coactivator-1b (PGC-1b) was "knocked down" in the animals' liver and fat tissue ... Fructose is much more readily metabolized to fat in the liver than glucose is and in the process can lead to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ... NAFLD in turn leads to hepatic insulin resistance and type II diabetes"
  • Fructose-sweetened Drinks Increase Nonfasting Triglycerides In Obese Adults - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "Obese people who drink fructose-sweetened beverages with their meals have an increased rise of triglycerides following the meal ... Increased triglycerides after a meal are known predictors of cardiovascular disease"
  • Mercury in Some High Fructose Corn Syrup? - WebMD, 1/27/09 - "we found detectable mercury in 17 of 55 samples, or around 31%"
  • High-Fructose Corn Syrup’s Bad Rap Unfair? - WebMD, 12/11/08
  • Fructose Metabolism More Complicated Than Was Thought - Science Daily, 12/9/08
  • New data: High-fructose corn syrup no worse than sugar - USATODAY.com, 12/8/08 - "Now, the tide of research, if not public opinion, has shifted. This week, five papers published in a supplement to Clinical Nutrition find no special link between consumption of high-fructose corn syrup and obesity ... It doesn't appear that when you consume high-fructose corn syrup, you have any different total effect on appetite than if you consume any other sugar"
  • Fructose -- Found In High-fructose Corn Syrup, Sugar -- Sets Table For Weight Gain Without Warning - Science Daily, 10/16/08 - "Eating too much fructose can induce leptin resistance, a condition that can easily lead to becoming overweight when combined with a high-fat, high-calorie diet"
  • High Fructose Corn Syrup: Too Sweet to Eat? - Dr. Weil, 9/1/08
  • Fructose May Make You Fatter - WebMD, 7/31/08 - "Fructose gets made into fat more quickly, and when that process is turned on there seems to be a signal that goes to the liver that says store all the other fats you are seeing"
  • Limiting Fructose May Boost Weight Loss, Researcher Reports - Science Daily, 7/24/08 - "One of the reasons people on low-carbohydrate diets may lose weight is that they reduce their intake of fructose, a type of sugar that can be made into body fat quick ... Fructose, on the other hand, enters this metabolic pathway downstream, bypassing the traffic cop and flooding the metabolic pathway"
  • High Fructose Corn Syrup Gets Unlikely Ally - WebMD, 6/18/08 - "At a meeting in Chicago, AMA delegates backed a resolution that argues that there's no scientific proof that high fructose corn syrup deserves the blame for obesity more than sugar or other caloric sweeteners. The resolution also nixes putting warning labels on products containing high fructose corn syrup"
  • Sweet Soft Drinks, Fructose Linked to Increased Risk for Gout - Medscape, 2/4/08
  • Blame Sweet Soda for Gout? - WebMD, 1/31/08 - "Compared with men who almost never drank sugar-sweetened soft drinks -- fewer than one per month -- frequent soft-drink drinkers were significantly more likely to suffer gout: ... Two or more soft drinks each day upped gout risk by 85% ... One soft drink each day upped gout risk by 45% ... Five or six soft drinks each week upped gout risk by 29%"
  • Too Much Fructose Could Leave Dieters Sugar Shocked - Science Daily, 12/13/07 - "Eating too much fructose causes uric acid levels to spike, which can block the ability of insulin to regulate how body cells use and store sugar and other nutrients for energy, leading to obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes"
  • Too Much Sugar Turns Off Gene That Controls Effects Of Sex Steroids - Science Daily, 11/21/07 - "This discovery reinforces public health advice to eat complex carbohydrates and avoid sugar ... Glucose and fructose are metabolized in the liver. When there’s too much sugar in the diet, the liver converts it to lipid. Using a mouse model and human liver cell cultures, the scientists discovered that the increased production of lipid shut down a gene called SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin), reducing the amount of SHBG protein in the blood. SHBG protein plays a key role in controlling the amount of testosterone and estrogen that’s available throughout the body"
  • Sugary Drinks, Not Fruit Juice, May Be Linked To Insulin - Science Daily, 9/5/07 - "Study participants who consumed two or more sugar-sweetened beverages per day had significantly higher fasting blood levels of insulin as compared to participants who did not report consuming any such beverages, regardless of age, sex, weight, smoking status, or other dietary habits ... Higher fasting levels of insulin mean these study participants are more at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes ... consumption of 100 percent fruit juice was not significantly related to any of our measures of insulin resistance"
  • Soda Warning? High-fructose Corn Syrup Linked To Diabetes, New Study Suggests - Science Daily, 8/23/07 - "high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) ... Chi-Tang Ho, Ph.D., conducted chemical tests among 11 different carbonated soft drinks containing HFCS. He found 'astonishingly high' levels of reactive carbonyls in those beverages. These undesirable and highly-reactive compounds associated with "unbound" fructose and glucose molecules are believed to cause tissue damage ... Ho estimates that a single can of soda contains about five times the concentration of reactive carbonyls than the concentration found in the blood of an adult person with diabetes ... adding epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a compound in tea, significantly reduced the levels of reactive carbonyl species in a dose-dependent manner when added to the carbonated soft drinks studied. In some cases, the levels of reactive carbonyls were reduced by half"
  • Not Enough Evidence To Indict High Fructose Corn Syrup In Obesity - Science Daily, 7/27/07
  • Fructose: Sugar's Dark Side? - WebMD, 6/25/07
  • Fructose-Sweetened Drinks Tougher on Arteries - washingtonpost.com, 6/23/07 - "Fructose-sweetened drinks are more likely to provoke the development of fatty artery deposits in overweight adults than glucose-sweetened beverages ... Those who drank fructose-sweetened drinks also had a boost in fasting blood concentrations of LDL ("bad") cholesterol and other measures. Those levels were unaltered in those consuming glucose-sweetened drinks, however"
  • Fructose-sweetened Beverages Increases Risk Of Obesity In Rats - Science Daily, 3/16/07
  • Fructose-sweetened Beverages Increases Risk Of Diabetes In Rats - Science Daily, 3/15/07
  • Sugar intake may hurt liver - Reuters, 10/31/06 - "fatty liver disease was more common in the group given sugar water, especially when exposed to a type of sugar called fructose ... These data support the hypothesis that high fructose consumption may not only (damage) the liver through over-feeding, but may be directly" toxic"
  • Is Fructose Dangerous? - thenutritionreporter.com


  • Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epidemiologique aupres des femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan 30 - "It has been extensively shown, mainly in US populations, that sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but less is known about the effects of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) ... A total of 66,118 women were followed from 1993, and 1369 incident cases of T2D were diagnosed during the follow-up ... Compared with nonconsumers, women in the highest quartiles of SSB and ASB consumers were at increased risk of T2D with HRs (95% CIs) of 1.34 (1.05, 1.71) and 2.21 (1.56, 3.14) for women who consumed >359 and >603 mL/wk of SSBs and ASBs, respectively. Strong positive trends in T2D risk were also observed across quartiles of consumption for both types of beverage (P = 0.0088 and P < 0.0001, respectively) ... No association was observed for 100% fruit juice consumption"
  • Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 14 - "observed 74,749 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1984-2008) and 39,059 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS, 1986-2008) ... sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and carbonated artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) ... caffeinated and caffeine-free SSB intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of T2D in the NHS (RR per serving: 13% for caffeinated SSB, 11% for caffeine-free SSB; P < 0.05) and in the HPFS (RR per serving: 16% for caffeinated SSB, 23% for caffeine-free SSB; P < 0.01). Only caffeine-free ASB intake in NHS participants was associated with a higher risk of T2D (RR: 6% per serving; P < 0.001). Conversely, the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee was associated with a lower risk of T2D [RR per serving: 8% for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee in the NHS (P < 0.0001) and 4% for caffeinated and 7% for decaffeinated coffee in the HPFS (P < 0.01)]. Only caffeinated tea was associated with a lower T2D risk among NHS participants"
  • Soft drink, 100% fruit juice, and vegetable juice intakes and risk of diabetes mellitus - Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug 13 - "A total of 484 men and 340 women reported newly diagnosed diabetes during10 years. High soft drink intake was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women but not men; odds ratio (95% CI) for women with almost daily consumption versus non-consumers was 2.10 (1.23-3.59; P-trend = 0.004) and 1.79 (1.11-2.89; P-trend = 0.01) at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The association was evident in overweight, highly educated and premenopausal women, and women with blue collar job. Intakes of 100% fruit juice and vegetable juice were not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes for either gender (P-trend >0.05)"
  • Fructose consumption leads to reduced aerobic capacity and to liver injury in rats - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Jun 19;11(1):78 - "We separated twenty-eight rats into two groups according to diet: a control group (C) (balanced diet) and a fructose group (F) (fed a diet containing fructose as 60% of the total caloric intake) ... The animals fed a fructose-rich diet exhibited a reduction in aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and increased concentrations of triglycerides and TBARS in the liver. Catalase and SOD activities were reduced in the livers of the fructose-fed animals. In addition, the serum AST/ALT ratio was higher than that of the C group, which indicates hepatic damage, and the damage was confirmed by histology. In conclusion, the fructose-rich diet caused significant liver damage and a reduction in insulin sensitivity in the animals, which could lead to deleterious metabolic effects"
  • Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in relation to stroke: a case-control study - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Jun 14 - "No statistically significant association was found between habitual intakes of SSBs and stroke"
  • "Metabolic syndrome" in the brain: Deficiency in omega-3-fatty acid exacerbates dysfunctions in insulin receptor signaling and cognition - J Physiol. 2012 Apr 2 - "high-dietary fructose consumption leads to increase in insulin resistance index, insulin and triglyceride levels, which characterize MetS. Rats fed on an n-3 deficient diet showed memory deficits in Barnes Maze, which were further exacerbated by fructose intake. In turn, n-3 deficient diet and fructose interventions disrupted insulin receptor signaling in hippocampus as evidenced by a decrease in phosphorylation of insulin receptor and its downstream effector Akt. We found that high fructose consumption with n-3 deficient diet disrupts membrane homeostasis as evidenced by an increase in the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids and levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation. Disturbances in brain energy metabolism due to n-3 deficiency and fructose treatments were evidenced by a significant decrease in AMPK phosphorylation and its upstream modulator LKB1 as well as a decrease in Sir2 levels. The decrease in phosphorylation of CREB, synapsin I and synaptophysin (SYP) levels by n-3 deficiency and fructose shows the impact of metabolic dysfunction on synaptic plasticity. All parameters of metabolic dysfunction related to the fructose treatment were ameliorated by the presence of dietary n-3 fatty acid. Results showed that dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency elevates the vulnerability to metabolic dysfunction and impaired cognitive functions by modulating insulin receptor signaling and synaptic plasticity" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • COFFEE, TEA AND SUGAR-SWEETENED CARBONATED SOFT DRINK INTAKE AND PANCREATIC CANCER RISK: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF 14 COHORT STUDIES - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Dec 22 - "Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (abbreviated as SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous ... pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies ... No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR=1.10, 95% CI=0.81-1.48 comparing >900 to <0g/day; 237g≈8oz), tea (MVRR=0.96, 95% CI=0.78-1.16 comparing >400 to 0g/day; 237g≈8oz) or SSB (MVRR=1.19, 95% CI=0.98-1.46 comparing >250 to 0g/day; 355g≈12oz) (p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity >0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.12)"
  • Consumption of Fructose and High Fructose Corn Syrup Increase Postprandial Triglycerides, LDL-Cholesterol, and Apolipoprotein-B in Young Men and Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug 17 - "The American Heart Association Nutrition Committee recommends women and men consume no more than 100 and 150 kcal of added sugar per day, respectively, whereas the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, suggests a maximal added sugar intake of 25% or less of total energy ... To address this discrepancy, we compared the effects of consuming glucose, fructose, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at 25% of energy requirements (E) on risk factors for cardiovascular disease ... Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve was increased compared with baseline during consumption of fructose (+4.7 +/- 1.2 mmol/liter × 24 h, P = 0.0032) and HFCS (+1.8 +/- 1.4 mmol/liter × 24 h, P = 0.035) but not glucose (-1.9 +/- 0.9 mmol/liter × 24 h, P = 0.14). Fasting LDL and apoB concentrations were increased during consumption of fructose (LDL: +0.29 +/- 0.082 mmol/liter, P = 0.0023; apoB: +0.093 +/- 0.022 g/liter, P = 0.0005) and HFCS (LDL: +0.42 +/- 0.11 mmol/liter, P < 0.0001; apoB: +0.12 +/- 0.031 g/liter, P < 0.0001) but not glucose (LDL: +0.012 +/- 0.071 mmol/liter, P = 0.86; apoB: +0.0097 +/- 0.019 g/liter, P = 0.90). Conclusions: Consumption of HFCS-sweetened beverages for 2 wk at 25% E increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease comparably with fructose and more than glucose in young adults"
  • Sucrose, high-sugar foods and risk of endometrial cancer - a population-based cohort study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jul 15 - "During 18.4 years of follow-up, 729 participants were diagnosed with incident endometrial cancer. Total sucrose intake and consumption of sweet buns and cookies was associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. RRs (with 95% CIs) for consuming more than 35 grams of sucrose/day and consuming sweet buns and cookies more than 3 times/week were 1.36 (1.04-1.77) and 1.42 (1.15-1.75) as compared to less than 15 grams of sucrose/day and consuming sweet buns and cookies less than 0.5 times/week, respectively. RRs for consuming more than 15 grams of sucrose/day as compared to 15 grams or less were 1.97 (1.27-3.04) among obese women and 1.56 (1.20-2.04) among women with low fat intake"
  • Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 1:1-10 - "Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45-75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004-9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24) were 2.23 (95 % CI 1.24, 3.99) for total sugars and 2.28 (95 % CI 1.26, 4.14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality"
  • Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Oct 14;9(1):116 - "The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group"
  • Sugar Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis - Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug - "sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, energy and vitamin water drinks ... Based on data from these studies, including 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of T2DM, individuals in the highest quantile of SSB intake (most often 1-2 servings/day) had a 26% greater risk of developing T2DM than those in the lowest quantile (none or < 1 serving/month) (RR:1.26 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.41)). Among studies evaluating MetSyn, including 19,431 participants and 5,803 cases, the pooled RR was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.42)"
  • Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation - Clin Dermatol. 2010 Jul-Aug;28(4):409-11 - "The effect of sugars on aging skin is governed by the simple act of covalently cross-linking two collagen fibers, which renders both of them incapable of easy repair. Glucose and fructose link the amino acids present in the collagen and elastin that support the dermis, producing advanced glycation end products or "AGEs." This process is accelerated in all body tissues when sugar is elevated and is further stimulated by ultraviolet light in the skin. The effect on vascular, renal, retinal, coronary, and cutaneous tissues is being defined, as are methods of reducing the glycation load through careful diet and use of supplements"
  • Sweetened beverage consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb 11 - "sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) ... After standard and dietary risk factors were adjusted for, the RRs (and 95% CIs) of CHD according to categories of cumulative average of SSB consumption (<1/mo, 1-4/mo, 2-6/wk, 1/d, and >/=2 servings/d) were 1.0, 0.96 (0.87, 1.06), 1.04 (0.95, 1.14), 1.23 (1.06, 1.43), and 1.35 (1.07, 1.69)"
  • Dietary Green Tea Extract Lowers Plasma and Hepatic Triglyceride and Decreases the Expression of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein-1c mRNA and Its Responsive Genes in Fructose-Fed Ovariectomized Rats - J Nutr. 2009 Feb 4 - "Fructose elevated plasma TG and cholesterol compared with the S group. GT at 0.5 and 1.0% markedly lowered plasma and liver TG. Fructose increased the expression of SREBP-1c, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNAs in the liver, whereas GT decreased the expression of these lipogenic genes. Similarly, fructose increased the abundance of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA, whereas GT significantly decreased its expression ... the lipid-lowering effect of GT is mediated partly by its inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis involving SREBP-1c and its responsive genes without affecting lipoprotein assembly" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1716S-1721S - "Although examples of pure fructose causing metabolic upset at high concentrations abound, especially when fed as the sole carbohydrate source, there is no evidence that the common fructose-glucose sweeteners do the same. Thus, studies using extreme carbohydrate diets may be useful for probing biochemical pathways, but they have no relevance to the human diet or to current consumption. I conclude that the HFCS-obesity hypothesis is supported neither in the United States nor worldwide"
  • Fructose consumption and consequences for glycation, plasma triacylglycerol, and body weight: meta-analyses and meta-regression models of intervention studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov;88(5):1419-37 - "The meta-analysis shows that fructose intakes from 0 to >or=90 g/d have a beneficial effect on HbA(1c). Significant effects on postprandial triacylglycerols are not evident unless >50 g fructose/d is consumed, and no significant effects are seen for fasting triacylglycerol or body weight with intakes of <or=100 g fructose/d in adults" - I don't get it.  It would seem like fructose would make HbA(1c) worse.
  • Dietary fructose and the metabolic syndrome - Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008 Mar;24(2):204-9 - "Recent animal studies have confirmed the link between fructose feeding and increased plasma uric acid, a potentially causative factor in metabolic syndrome. Advanced glycation end products are also implicated because of their direct protein modifications and indirect effects on inflammation and oxidative stress. Human studies have demonstrated fructose's ability to change metabolic hormonal response, possibly contributing to decreased satiety ... There is much evidence from both animal models and human studies supporting the notion that fructose is a highly lipogenic nutrient that, when consumed in high quantities, contributes to tissue insulin insensitivity, metabolic defects, and the development of a prediabetic state"
  • Sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet soft drinks, and serum uric acid level: The third national health and nutrition examination survey - Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Dec 28;59(1):109-116 - "sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption is associated with serum uric acid levels and frequency of hyperuricemia, but diet soft drink consumption is not"
  • Dietary glycemic load, added sugars, and carbohydrates as risk factors for pancreatic cancer: the Multiethnic Cohort Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1495-501 - "Glycemic load and added sugars were not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. The risk increased with higher intakes of total sugars, fructose, and sucrose, and the association with fructose was significant when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared (relative risk: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.80; P for trend = 0.046). A significant association was found with fruit and juices intake (1.37; 1.02, 1.84; P for trend = 0.04) but not with soda intake. Statistical evidence of a significant interaction with body mass index was present only for sucrose intake (P = 0.04). A comparison of the highest and lowest quartiles of sucrose intake in overweight or obese participants gave a relative risk of 1.46 (0.95-2.25; P for trend = 0.04), but the comparison was not significant in normal-weight participants"
  • Fructose intake is a predictor of LDL particle size in overweight schoolchildren - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1174-1178 - "After control for adiposity, the only dietary factor that was a significant predictor of LDL particle size was total fructose intake"
  • Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):899-906 - "We also present evidence that the unique ability of fructose to induce an increase in uric acid may be a major mechanism by which fructose can cause cardiorenal disease"
  • Consumption of sweetened beverages and intakes of fructose and glucose predict type 2 diabetes occurrence - J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1447-54 - "Combined intake of fructose and glucose was associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes but no significant association was observed for intakes of sucrose, lactose, or maltose. The relative risk between the highest and lowest quartiles of combined fructose and glucose intake was 1.87"
  • High fructose diet increases mortality in hypertensive rats compared to a complex carbohydrate or high fat diet - Am J Hypertens. 2007 Apr;20(4):403-9 - "a high fructose diet consumed during hypertension increases mortality and left ventricular (LV) wall thickness compared to either a high fat, high starch, or a "western" diet"
  • A 4-wk high-fructose diet alters lipid metabolism without affecting insulin sensitivity or ectopic lipids in healthy humans - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Dec;84(6):1374-9 - "Moderate fructose supplementation over 4 wk increases plasma triacylglycerol and glucose concentrations without causing ectopic lipid deposition or insulin resistance in healthy humans"
  • Catalytic amounts of fructose may improve glucose tolerance in subjects with uncontrolled non-insulin-dependent diabetes - Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan 3 - "were assigned to either fructose or maltodextrin supplementation (7.5g) tri-daily after each main meal ... After 1 month fructosamin levels decreased in the fructose-supplemented group but not in the maltodextrin-supplemented group (P<0.052). Hgb(A1C) levels decreased with time in both groups but were significantly lower at 2 months in the fructose group as compared to the maltodextrin group"


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