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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 8/15/12.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Chemical widely used in antibacterial hand soaps may impair muscle function - Science Daily, 8/13/12 - "Triclosan is found in virtually everyone's home and is pervasive in the environment ... Triclosan is commonly found in antibacterial personal-care products such as hand soaps as well as deodorants, mouthwashes, toothpaste, bedding, clothes, carpets, toys and trash bags ... Anesthetized mice had up to a 25-percent reduction in heart function measures within 20 minutes of exposure to the chemical ... We were surprised by the large degree to which muscle activity was impaired in very different organisms and in both cardiac and skeletal muscle"

Egg yolk consumption almost as bad as smoking when it comes to atherosclerosis, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/13/12 - "regular consumption of egg yolks is about two-thirds as bad as smoking when it comes to increased build-up of carotid plaque ... The study looked at data from 1,231 men and women, with a mean age of 61.5, who were patients attending vascular prevention clinics at London Health Sciences Centre's University Hospital ... The researchers found carotid plaque area increased linearly with age after age 40, but increased exponentially with pack-years of smoking and egg yolk-years" - [Abstract]

Cocoa May Sharpen Aging Brain - WebMD, 8/13/12 - "included 90 elderly people who already had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) ... For eight weeks, they drank a cocoa drink that had high, medium, or low amounts of antioxidants called flavanols. Those who got high and medium levels of flavanols in their drink did better on tests of attention and other mental skills, compared to people who got low amounts of flavanols" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com (yeah it's not cocoa but I'll bet it covers most of the flavanons).

Common antibiotics pose a rare risk of severe liver injury in older patients - Science Daily, 8/13/12 - "Compared with clarithromycin, moxifloxacin was associated with a more than 2-fold increased risk of admission to hospital for acute liver injury ... Levofloxacin was also associated with a statistically significant but lower risk of hepatotoxicity than…moxifloxacin"

Iron, vitamins could affect physical fitness in adolescents - Science Daily, 8/9/12 - "Because nutrition and fitness are intertwined -- for example, iron forms part of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to muscles, and antioxidants such as vitamin C aid in rebuilding damage after intense training -- these two findings could be related. In a new study, researchers have found that adolescents' blood levels of various micronutrients are correlated with how well they performed in certain physical fitness tests. Though these results don't prove causality, they suggest a new relationship between different measures of adolescent health ... The researchers found that blood levels of certain micronutrients were intimately connected with the volunteers' performance on the physical fitness tests. For cardiorespiratory fitness, concentrations of hemoglobin, retinol, and vitamin C in males and beta-carotene and vitamin D in females was associated with VO2max. For muscular fitness, concentrations of hemoglobin, beta-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol in males and beta-carotene and vitamin D in females was associated with performing better on the standing long jump test"

Vitamin D and Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Medscape, 8/9/12 - "Current understanding points to beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients with IBD in terms of bone and muscle preservation, reduction in inflammation and potentially reduced risk of cancer in patients with IBD. However, these beneficial effects must be balanced with potential adverse effects in the clinical setting. The precise thresholds of serum 25(OH) vitamin D for beneficial and potentially adverse effects remain poorly defined in the literature. Until further evidence is available, we recommend to aim for a serum 25(OH) vitamin D level of 75 nmol/L. In a condition with a propensity to affect young people and a disproportionate effect on quality of life and productivity, the potential advent of inexpensive supplementary therapies presents an attractive option for ongoing research" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Outmuscling major depression with creatine - Science Daily, 8/7/12 - "women with major depressive disorder (MDD) who augmented their daily antidepressant with 5 grams of creatine responded twice as fast and experienced remission of the illness at twice the rate of women who took the antidepressant alone ... Creatine is an amino acid made in the human liver, kidneys, and pancreas. It also is found in meat and fish. Inside the body it is converted into phosphocreatine and stored in muscle. During high-intensity exercise, phosphocreatine is converted into ATP, an important energy source for cells. For this reason, creatine has become a popular supplement among bodybuilders and athletes who are trying to add muscle mass or improve athletic ability ... The group that received creatine showed significantly higher improvement rates on the HDRS at two and four weeks (32 percent and 68 percent) compared to the placebo group (3.7 percent and 29 percent). At the end of eight weeks, half of those in the creatine group showed no signs of depression compared with one-quarter in the placebo group. There were no significant adverse side effects associated with creatine" - See creatine at Amazon.com.

The scientific side of steroid use and abuse - Science Daily, 8/6/12 - "There is this disconnect among young people that somehow your emotions, your thought processes -- things that have to do with your brain -- are separate and different from what steroids may be doing to your body -- your muscles, your heart, or your liver, or anything like that ... Teenagers need to recognize that these drugs actually do things to your brain, and your behavior comes from your brain ... Studies have shown there are "critical periods" -- periods of time during adolescence when exposure to steroids can impose permanent changes in both brain organization and function, leading to physiological and psychiatric effects that may still be prevalent even in middle age. The age at which you take them also affects their persistence"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Use of isoflavone supplements is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2012 Aug 13 - "Associations between ever use of 28 isoflavone supplements and breast cancer risk in Ontario, Canada were evaluated using cases (n=3101) identified in 2002-2003 from the Ontario Cancer Registry and controls (n=3471) identified through random digit dialing methods ... Several individual supplements were associated with reduced breast cancer risk (e.g. Natural HRT; AOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.69; n(users) =58). Use of any isoflavone supplements was associated with reduced risk when ≥3 were ever used (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.86; n(users) =332; P(trend) =0.008) or any was taken >5 years (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.94; n(users) =325; P(trend) =0.01); high content supplements were consistently associated with reduced risk. Risk reduction was confined to postmenopausal breast cancer for both individual and combined supplements, and was strongest in the latter among high content users who ever took ≥3 supplements (AOR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.81; n(users) =118; P(trend) =0.04) or any >5 years (AOR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; n(users) =60; P(trend) =0.03). Associations did not differ by estrogen-progesterone tumor receptor status" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.

Hyperglycemia and Incidence of Frailty and Lower Extremity Mobility Limitations in Older Women - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Aug 10 - "Hyperglycemia is associated with the development of frailty and lower extremity mobility limitations in older women. Future studies should identify mediators of these relationships"

Daily Aspirin Use and Cancer Mortality in a Large US Cohort - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Aug 10 - "Compared with no use, daily aspirin use at baseline was associated with slightly lower cancer mortality, regardless of duration of daily use (for <5 years of use, RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.01; for ≥5 years of use, RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.02). Associations were slightly stronger in analyses that used updated aspirin information from periodic follow-up questionnaires and included 3373 cancer deaths (for <5 years of use, RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.94; for ≥5 years of use, RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.95). Conclusion: These results are consistent with an association between recent daily aspirin use and modestly lower cancer mortality but suggest that any reduction in cancer mortality may be smaller than that observed with long-term aspirin use in the pooled trial analysis"

Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and mice, and induces weight gain and inflammation in mice - Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug 10:1-10 - "Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century and is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity. Vegetable oils are recognised as suitable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) but introduce high amounts of LA in the salmon fillet. The effect on fish consumers of such a replacement remains to be elucidated ... In conclusion, excessive dietary LA elevates endocannabinoids in the liver of salmon and mice, and increases weight gain and counteracts the anti-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA in mice" - Note: linoleic acid is an omega-6.

Association Between Longer Therapy With Thiazolidinediones and Risk of Bladder Cancer: A Cohort Study - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Aug 9 - "Comparison of pioglitazone to rosiglitazone use did not demonstrate difference in cancer risk ... Long-term TZD therapy (≥5 years) in patients with type 2 diabetes may be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, which may be common to all TZDs"

Late Life Leisure Activities and Risk of Cognitive Decline - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Aug 9 - "Leisure activities in old age may protect against cognitive decline for both women and men, and different types of activities seem to benefit different cognitive domains"

Glycated Hemoglobin is Associated with the Complexity of Coronary Artery Disease, Even in Non-Diabetic Adults - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012 Aug 9 - "Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between HbA1c value and coronary artery lesion complexity ... The complexity of the coronary artery lesions was evaluated using the SYNTAX score (SXscore). The subjects were divided into quartiles according to either the HbA1c or the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values ... Both the higher HbA1c quartiles (Q1 to Q4) and higher FPG quartiles were significantly associated with a higher SXscore ... HbA1c is significantly associated with the complexity of coronary lesions. This association is even observed in non-diabetic adults. A higher HbA1c value is an independent predictor of the prevalence of complex coronary lesions"

Decaffeinated green tea extract improves hypertension and insulin resistance in a rat model of metabolic syndrome - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jul 15 - "Decaffeinated-GTE reduced the formation of ROS and NADPH oxidase activity and stimulated phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt in the aorta of a rat model of MetS, which resulted in improved endothelial dysfunction and IR, and eventually lowered BP" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal, healthy women predicts increased cardiovascular events--a 16-year follow-up study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Aug 8 - "At baseline, mean age was 50 years ... Compared with vitamin D replete women, women with low 25(oh)D-levels had significantly higher BMI and triglycerides; lower HDL and hip-waist ratio, and less education. More were smokers among the vitamin D deficient (47% vs. 38%). A primary end-point was experienced by 118 (15%) with vitamin D deficiency and by 125 (10%) of the vitamin D replete. Hazard ratio (HR) was 1.49 (95% ci: 1.16-1.92; p=0.002) in the vitamin D deficient. Adjusted HR: 1.32 (1.02-1.71; p=0.03). In total, 135 women died; of these, 65 (8%) of the vitamin d deficient and 70 (6%) in the vitamin D replete group; unadjusted HR: 1.44 (1.02-2.01; p=0.04) for vitamin D deficiency" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

BBlood pressure and risk of cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes: further findings from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR-BP II) - J Hypertens. 2012 Aug 4 - "In treated patients, nonlinear splines for 6-year risk of fatal/nonfatal CHD, stroke and CVD by BP as a continuous variable showed a progressive increase with higher SBP from 140 mmHg and higher, and with DBP from 80 mmHg, with a J-shaped risk curve at lowest SBP levels, but not obviously at lowest DBP levels. Analysing intervals of SBP with 130-134 mmHg as reference at Cox regression, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for fatal/nonfatal CHD, stroke and CVD with at least 140 mmHg were 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.39], 1.43 (1.18-1.72), 1.26 (1.13-1.41), all P < 0.001. HR with 115-129 and 135-139 mmHg were nonsignificant, whereas increased with 100-114 mmHg, 1.96 (P < 0.001), 1.75 (P = 0.02), 2.08 (P < 0.001), respectively. With DBP 75-79 mmHg as reference, adjusted HR for fatal/nonfatal CHD, stroke and CVD with DBP 80-84 mmHg were 1.42 (1.26-1.59), 1.46 (1.24-1.72), 1.39 (1.26-1.53), all P < 0.001. Corresponding HR with DBP at least 85 mmHg were 1.70 (1.50-1.92), 2.35 (1.99-2.77), 1.87 (1.69-2.07), all P < 0.001. Corresponding HR with DBP 60-69 and 70-74 mmHg were nonsignificant. The picture was similar in 7059 patients with previous CVD and in untreated patients ... CONCLUSION: BP around 130-135/75-79 mmHg showed lower risks of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes"

Health Focus (HbA1c):

Alternative News:

  • Vitamin C and A1c Relationship in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 - J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Dec;30(6):477-83 - "The consumption of foods high in vitamin C has been associated with lower risk of diabetes ... Vitamin C concentrations were inversely associated with A1c (p = 0.0202). Stronger inverse associations were observed in subjects 18-44 years of age (p = 0.0017), as well as in female (p = 0.0035) and Mexican American (p = 0.0149) subgroups. Evidence of a significant interaction between vitamin C and vitamin D was noted in subjects aged 18-44 years and in females (p = 0.0073 and 0.0095 respectively), with the inverse association tending to be evident at lower levels of vitamin D"
  • Creatine in Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 5/10/11 - &"The patients were allocated to receive either creatine (CR) (5 g.d−1) or placebo (PL) ...This is the first randomized controlled trial to describe the beneficial effects of creatine supplementation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients who underwent exercise training. As such, this supplement emerges as a valuable nonpharmacological approach for treating diabetes ... the mean reduction in HbA1c (−1.1%) was superior to that commonly seen with exercise training[25] or metformin[10] treatment alone, pointing out the therapeutic potential of this novel nutritional intervention" - See creatine at Amazon.com
  • Effects of aerobic and resistance training on hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial - JAMA. 2010 Nov 24;304(20):2253-62 - "The mean changes in HbA(1c) were not statistically significant in either the resistance training (-0.16%; 95% CI, -0.46% to 0.15%; P = .32) or the aerobic (-0.24%; 95% CI, -0.55% to 0.07%; P = .14) groups compared with the control group. Only the combination exercise group improved maximum oxygen consumption (mean, 1.0 mL/kg per min; 95% CI, 0.5-1.5, P < .05) compared with the control group. All exercise groups reduced waist circumference from -1.9 to -2.8 cm compared with the control group. The resistance training group lost a mean of -1.4 kg fat mass (95% CI, -2.0 to -0.7 kg; P < .05) and combination training group lost a mean of -1.7 (-2.3 to -1.1 kg; P < .05) compared with the control group ... Among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a combination of aerobic and resistance training compared with the nonexercise control group improved HbA(1c) levels. This was not achieved by aerobic or resistance training alone"
  • Can the Mediterranean diet lower HbA1c in type 2 diabetes? Results from a randomized cross-over study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Jul 29 - "Compared with usual diet, on the ad libitum Mediterranean intervention diet glycosylated haemoglobin fell from 7.1% (95% CI: 6.5-7.7) to 6.8%"
  • Poor control of diabetes may be linked to low vitamin D - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "Despite receiving regular primary care visits before referral to the endocrine clinic, 91 percent of patients had either vitamin D deficiency (defined as a level below 15 nanograms per deciliter, or ng/dL) or insufficiency (15 to 31 ng/dL) ... Additionally, the investigators found an inverse relationship between the patients' blood levels of vitamin D and their hemoglobin A1c value, a measure of blood sugar control over the past several months. Lower vitamin D levels were discovered in patients with higher average blood sugars as measured by HbA1c" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com./span>
  • Effect of Oral Acetyl L-Carnitine Arginate on Biomarkers in Pre-Diabetics - Medscape, 10/28/09 - "3 g.day−1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 +/- 3 yrs) or placebo (n = 15; 35 +/- 3 yrs) in a double-blind design, to consume for eight weeks ... slight improvements in glucose (109 +/- 5 to 103 +/- 5 mg.dL−1), HbA1c (6.6 +/- 1.1 to 6.2 +/- 1.2%), and HOMA-IR (3.3 +/- 1.3 to 2.9 +/- 1.2) ... slight improvement in glucose metabolism, as evidenced by minor decreases in blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c (which may have been more pronounced with longer treatment, as HbA1c has a half-life equal to approximately 12 weeks" - See propionyl-l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
  • Low Glycemic Diets Help Diabetics Control Blood Sugar, Review Suggests - Science Daily, 1/2/0/09 - "Clinicians measured hemoglobin A1c levels, which give a picture of a person's blood glucose control over several weeks or months. The reviewers found that levels decreased by 0.5 percent with a low GI diet, noting that the findings were significant, both statistically and clinically"
  • Fructose consumption and consequences for glycation, plasma triacylglycerol, and body weight: meta-analyses and meta-regression models of intervention studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov;88(5):1419-37 - "The meta-analysis shows that fructose intakes from 0 to >or=90 g/d have a beneficial effect on HbA(1c). Significant effects on postprandial triacylglycerols are not evident unless >50 g fructose/d is consumed, and no significant effects are seen for fasting triacylglycerol or body weight with intakes of <or=100 g fructose/d in adults" - I don't get it.  It would seem like fructose would make HbA(1c) worse.
  • Effects of niacin on glucose control in patients with dyslipidemia - Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 Apr;83(4):470-8 - "the effects of niacin (</=2.5 g/d), alone or in combination with statins, on fasting glucose (an increase of 4%-5%) and hemoglobin A1c levels (an increase of </=0.3%) are modest, transient or reversible, and typically amenable to adjustments in oral hypoglycemic regimens without discontinuing niacin. Niacin therapy was infrequently associated with incident diabetes or the need for new insulin prescriptions. Studies showed important clinical benefits of niacin or niacin-statin regimens despite modest effects on glucose control. On a population basis, significant reductions in incidences of cardiovascular events and the degree of atherosclerotic progression associated with long-term niacin (or niacin-statin) therapy in patients with diabetic dyslipidemia outweigh the typically mild effects of this therapy on glycemic regulation"
  • Randomized controlled trial for an effect of green tea-extract powder supplementation on glucose abnormalities - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun 6 - "consumed a packet of green tea-extract powder containing 544 mg polyphenols (456 mg catechins) daily ... A significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c level and a borderline significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure were associated with the intervention" - See Jarrow green tea at iHerb.
  • Study Results Show Diachrome(R) Improves Poorly-Controlled Blood Sugar Levels for People on Antidiabetic Prescription Medications - Doctor's Guide, 9/13/05 - "Study participants taking Diachrome with one or more antidiabetic medications saw an average range of 0.7 - 1.9% point reduction in HbA1c levels. The study also showed that insulin resistance was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in those taking thiazolidinediones and Diachrome ... Diachrome is a nutritional supplement specifically formulated for people with diabetes. It contains 600 mcg of chromium as Chromax(R) chromium picolinate and 2 mg of biotin" - See chromium supplements at Amazon.com and biotin at iHerb.
  • The effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the pharmacokinetics of metformin in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects-A double blind placebo-controlled, crossover study - Clin Nutr. 2006 May 12 - "Ingestion of EGb 761 produced no significant changes in diagnostic laboratory tests in either group, except reducing glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) levels (from 7.7+/-1.2 to 7.2+/-0.9%, P<0.05) in T2DM the subjects"
  • Supplemental Chromium Picolinate and Biotin Appear to Decrease Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetics: Presented at ADA - Doctor's Guide, 6/17/05 - "Our most important finding is that chromium picolinate and biotin help to decrease hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] values in poorly controlled diabetics ... 600 mcg chromium picolinate and biotin 2 mg/per day" - See biotin at Amazon.com.
  • Uses of Metformin May Extend Beyond Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 9/4/03 - "In type 2 diabetics, metformin appears to decrease plasma fasting glucose and HbA1c levels without causing weight gain. Metformin may also have a positive influence on a variety of cardiovascular risk factors and may be useful in preventing diabetes in overweight individuals with mild hyperglycaemia ... while further study is necessary before more widespread use is encouraged, the role of metformin may be expanded for glucose control in children and teenagers with type 2 diabetes, in non-diabetic women with PCOS, and to prevent progression to diabetes"
  • Chromium Supplements Appear to Improve Glucose Sensitivity in Diabetics - Medscape, 8/29/03 - "We think that chromium picolinate can influence a person's diabetic treatment so that levels of insulin required may be reduced ... HbA1c levels decreased from 9.5% to 9% during a six-month period in patients receiving a higher dose of the supplement, a difference that was statistically significant ... The study also showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels and trends for improvement in triglycerides in both chromium picolinate groups as well as a reduction in blood pressure in all groups" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon chromium products.

Other News:

  • Low Hemoglobin A1c in Nondiabetic Adults: An elevated risk state? - Diabetes Care. 2012 Aug 1 - "Compared with participants with HbA(1c) in the normal range (5.0 to <5.7%), participants with low HbA(1c) were younger, less likely to smoke, had lower BMI, lower white cell count and fibrinogen levels, and lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and history of coronary heart disease. However, this group was more likely to have anemia and had a higher mean corpuscular volume. In adjusted Cox models with HbA(1c) of 5.0 to <5.7% as the reference group, HbA(1c) <5.0% was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13-1.55) and of cancer death (1.47, 95% CI: 1.16-1.84). We also noted nonsignificant trends toward increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes (1.27; 95% CI, 0.93-1.75) and respiratory causes (1.42, 95% CI: 0.78-2.56). There was a J-shaped association between HbA(1c) and risk of liver disease hospitalization"
  • Association of glycated hemoglobin with carotid intimal medial thickness in Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance - J Diabetes Complications. 2012 Jul 11 - "To assess the association of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) in Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) ... The study group included 1383 NGT subjects, of whom 760 (54.9%) were women. The mean CIMT value in the 1st quartile of HbA1c (<5.2%) was 0.65 and it increased significantly to 0.73 in the last quartile of HbA1c (>5.8) (p<0.001). Regression analysis showed that HbA1c had a strong association with CIMT after adjusting for age, gender, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, HOMA-IR and smoking (ß - 0.046, p=0.047) ... Even among subjects with NGT, there is a significant increase in CIMT with increasing levels of HbA1c, showing the value of using HbA1c for diagnosis of glucose intolerance"
  • Relationship between HbA(1c) levels and risk of cardiovascular adverse outcomes and all-cause mortality in overweight and obese cardiovascular high-risk women and men with type 2 diabetes - Diabetologia. 2012 May 26 - "The median HbA(1c) concentration was 7.2% (3.8-15.9%) (55 mmol/l [18-150 mmol/l]) and median diabetes duration was 7 years (0-57 years). For each 1 percentage point HbA(1c) increase, the adjusted HR for the primary endpoint was 1.17 (95% CI 1.11, 1.23); no differential sex effect was observed (p = 0.12 for interaction). In contrast, the risk of all-cause mortality was found to be greater in women than in men: HR 1.22 (1.10, 1.34) vs 1.12 (1.04, 1.20) for each 1 percentage point HbA(1c) increase (p = 0.02 for interaction). There was no evidence of increased risk associated with HbA(1c) ≤6.4% (≤46 mmol/l). Glucose-lowering treatment regimens, diabetes duration or a history of cardiovascular disease did not modify the associations"
  • Low Glycated Hemoglobin and Liver Disease in the U.S. Population - Diabetes Care. 2011 Sep 27 - "We observed J-shaped associations between HbA(1c) and liver enzymes and hepatic steatosis. In adjusted models, HbA(1c) <4.0% was strongly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (OR 3.62 [95% CI 1.09-12.02]) and aspartate aminotransferase (6.80 [2.99-15.43]).CONCLUSIONSLow HbA(1c) values were associated with liver enzymes and steatosis in the U.S. population. Liver disease may partially explain the association of HbA(1c) with mortality and other long-term outcomes"
  • Registry Data Support 'J-Curve' CV Risk Theory for Hba1c in Diabetes - Medscape, 9/16/11 - "In Cox regression analyses that used age and systolic blood pressure as covariates, the hazard ratio for the composite end point was lowest for HbA1c levels in the range of 6% to 7%, but rose below 6% and above 7%"
  • Association between HbA(1c) and cardiovascular disease mortality in older Hong Kong Chinese with diabetes - Diabet Med. 2011 Sep 14. - "A total of 2137 Chinese aged 65 years or above attending the Elderly Health Service, Department of Health, Hong Kong, with diagnosed diabetes had HbA(1c) measured during 1998 to 2000 and were followed up to 2009 ... After adjusting for potential confounders, higher HbA(1c) (≥ 69 mmol/mol, 8.5%) increased the risk of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio 2.11;95% CI 1.37-3.25) and stroke mortality (hazard ratio 2.43; 95% CI 1.06-5.55) compared with HbA(1c) of 58-68 mmol/mol (7.5-8.4%), and increased the risk of all-cause (hazard ratio 1.41; 95% CI 1.06-1.86) and coronary heart disease mortality (hazard ratio 2.44; 95% CI 1.11-5.37) compared with HbA(1c) of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) or less. Analysis of HbA(1c) as a continuous variable showed that every XX mmol/mol (1%) increase in HbA(1c) decreased stroke mortality risk by 51% in those with HbA(1c) level less than 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) and increased stroke mortality risk by 30% in those with an HbA(1c) level of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) or higher, suggesting a U-shaped association between HbA(1c) and stroke mortality.  Conclusion: High HbA(1c) predicted excess risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke mortality. The question of whether low HbA(1c) increases mortality in older patients with diabetes needs further investigation"
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A1c, Fasting Plasma Glucose, and Two-Hour Postchallenge Plasma Glucose Levels in Relation to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Chinese with Normal Glucose Tolerance - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jun 29 - "carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ... participants in the highest quartile of HbA1c, as compared with those in the lowest quartile, still conferred a 68% increased odds of elevated CIMT (≥0.70 mm)"
  • Optimal range of HbA1c for the prediction of future diabetes: A 4-year longitudinal study - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Jun 13 - "The point showing a substantial difference in the Kaplan-Meier curves was a HbA1c of 5.7%. The incidence of diabetes was 20.8% among subjects with a baseline HbA1c of 5.7-6.4%. The hazard ratio of developing diabetes was 6.5 (95% CI, 3.7-10.2) in the subjects with a HbA1c of 5.7% compared with the bottom category of HbA1c (<5.0%)"
  • Association between glycosylated haemoglobin A(1c) and endothelial function in an adult non-diabetic population - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Apr 16 - "Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitrate-mediated dilation (NMD) measurements of the brachial artery were performed using standardised ultrasound techniques ... We conclude that higher serum HbA(1c) levels in non-diabetic subjects are inversely associated with FMD in women without antihypertensive medication, but not in men. The gender-specific aspects concerning the association of HbA(1c) levels and NMD in this population should be investigated in further studies. Our results support current considerations that subclinical disorders of glucose metabolism measured by serum HbA(1c) are associated with subclinical cardiovascular diseases detected by FMD, especially in women"
  • Glycated Hemoglobin Predicts All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer Mortality in People Without a History of Diabetes Undergoing Coronary Angiography - Diabetes Care. 2011 Apr 22 - "The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) (95% CI) for glycated hemoglobin values of <5.0, 5.0-5.4, 5.5-5.9, 6.0-6.4, 6.5-7.4, and ≥7.5% for all-cause mortality were 1.36 (0.85-2.18), 1.00 (0.76-1.32), 1.00 (reference), 1.11 (0.88-1.41), 1.39 (1.07-1.82), and 2.15 (1.32-3.53), respectively. Similar J-shaped relationships were found between glycated hemoglobin and cardiovascular and cancer mortality. The associations of glycated hemoglobin with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality remained significant after inclusion of fasting glucose as a covariate. However, fasting glucose was not significantly related to mortality when adjusting for glycated hemoglobin"
  • Low Glycemic Level Linked to Higher Mortality in Elderly - Medscape, 4/21/11 - "There was a U-shaped association of mortality with A1c level. Compared with the mortality risk with A1c level of less than 6.0%, the risk was lower for A1c levels between 6.0% and 9.0% (eg, HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.76 - 0.90] for A1c levels 7.0% - 7.9%) and higher at A1c levels of 11.0% or more (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.09 - 1.57). At A1c levels of 8.0% or higher, the risk was significantly higher for any endpoint (complication or death) ... We cannot say whether this unexpected finding is due to the very low blood sugar itself, the treatments used to control blood sugars, or to some other factors not directly related to the care of diabetes ... It may be that the sickest patients at high risk of dying simply had low blood sugars to start with, rather than anything directly associated with the care of diabetes increasing the risk of death"
  • High-Normal HbA1c Is a Strong Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes in the General Population - Diabetes Care. 2011 Feb 9 - "We measured HbA(1c) in 919 Caucasian subjects, aged 40-79 years, and recorded new cases of type 2 diabetes in the following 15 years. Diabetes was diagnosed with HbA(1c). RESULTS Subjects were stratified according to baseline HbA(1c) (<5.0, 5.00-5.49 [reference], 5.50-5.99, and 6.00-6.49%). Sex- and age-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for type 2 diabetes were 1.11 (0.30-4.41), 1.00, 3.79 (1.79-8.06), and 12.50 (5.51-28.34), respectively. Results did not change after adjusting for several putative confounding factors and were confirmed when models with updated variables were used. CONCLUSIONS HbA(1c) is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Subjects with high-normal levels of HbA(1c) deserve particular attention because they have a strong risk of developing diabetes"
  • Influence of glycosylated hemoglobin on sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy: A population-based study - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Feb 3 - "sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) ... A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was noted in the duration of diabetes, gender, body mass index, HbA1c, micro- and macro-albuminuria between both non-STDR and STDR groups as compared to the no-diabetic retinopathy (DR) group. On multivariate analysis, HbA1c (non-STDR: odd's ratio OR=1.23; 95% confidence interval CI=1.15-1.32; p<0.0001; STDR: OR=1.31 95% CI=1.14-1.52; p<0.0001) was found to be significantly associated with non-STDR and STDR when compared with the no-DR group. The Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off value of 8.0 had 75.6% sensitivity and 58.2% specificity with 64.9% maximum area under the curve ... HbA1c value >8.0% was significantly related with STDR. In a screening programme, the cut-off value of HbA1c >8.0% provided a maximum yield of STDR"
  • Hemoglobin A1c as a Predictor of Incident Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2011 Feb 2 - "These patients were tracked for 8 years for a subsequent diagnosis of diabetes. RESULTS During an average follow-up of 4.4 years, 3,329 (26.9%) developed diabetes. HbA(1c) ≥5.0% carried a significant risk for developing diabetes during follow-up. When compared with the reference group (HbA(1c) <4.5%), HbA(1c) increments of 0.5% between 5.0 and 6.4% had adjusted odds ratios of 1.70 (5.0-5.4%), 4.87 (5.5-5.9%), and 16.06 (6.0-6.4%) (P < 0.0001). Estimates of hazard ratios similarly showed significant increases for HbA(1c) ≥5.0%. A risk model for incident diabetes within 5 years was developed and validated using HbA(1c), age, BMI, and systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of diabetes progressively and significantly increased among patients with an HbA(1c) ≥5.0%, with substantially expanded risk for those with HbA(1c) 6.0-6.4%"
  • Haemoglobin A1c is superior to fasting glucose in predicting the incidence of diabetes over 8 years among Chinese - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Dec 22 - "Baseline haemoglobin A1c had a higher standardized hazard ratio, and more optimal sensitivity and specificity than fasting glucose in predicting the 8-year incidence of diabetes among 530 non-diabetic Chinese from the population-based Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study"
  • Hemoglobin A1c between 5.7 and 6.4% as a marker for identifying pre-diabetes, insulin sensitivity and secretion, and cardiovascular risk factors: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) - Diabetes Care. 2010 Jun 23 - "impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) ... impaired fasting glucose (IFG) ... A1C(5.7-6.4%) is less sensitive for detecting at-risk individuals than IFG and IGT, particularly among non-Hispanic whites. Single determinations of FPG and 2-h PG appear more precise correlates of insulin resistance and secretion than A1C and in general better for other metabolic disorders"
  • A1c Levels: Is Lower Always Better? - Medscape, 4/23/10 - "A1c values in the lowest decile (median, 6.4%) were associated with an increased risk for mortality for all patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-1.64). This finding was stronger in the INS cohort (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.45-1.22) than in the SUMET cohort (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.07-1.58). Only the 10th decile (median, 10.4%) was also associated with increased mortality risk in the SUMET cohort (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.55-2.42); but in the INS cohort, deciles 2 (median, 6.95%; HR,1.45; 95% CI, 1.17-1.80), 3 (median, 7.3%; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.09-1.67), 9 (median, 9.4%; HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.77), and 10 (median, 10.6%; HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.49-2.17) were all associated with greater risk. The combined model yielded results similar to the INS cohort, and the inclusion of a variable for membership in the INS cohort was significantly associated with increased mortality (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.39-1.59). The adjusted risk for progression to large-vessel disease had the same general U-shaped association as for all-cause mortality, and insulin treatment was associated with an increased risk for a first large-vessel disease event"
  • Hemoglobin A1c outperforms fasting glucose for risk prediction - Science Daily, 3/3/10 - "Measurements of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) more accurately identify persons at risk for clinical outcomes than the commonly used measurement of fasting glucose ... people with HbA1c levels between 5.0 to 5.5 percent were identified as being within "normal" range ... With each incremental HbA1c increase, the study found, the incidence of diabetes increased as well; those at a level of 6.5 percent or greater are considered diabetic, and those between 6.0 and 6.5 percent are considered at a "very high risk" (9 times greater than those at the "normal" range) for developing diabetes"
  • Effect of age and race/ethnicity on HbA1c levels in people without known diabetes mellitus: Implications for the diagnosis of diabetes - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Jan 8 - "Over 90% of all race/ethnicity groups would have diabetes with HbA1c levels >/=7.0% ... we recommend an HbA1c level of >/=7.0% to diagnose diabetes"
  • A1C Blood Test OK for Diabetes Diagnosis - WebMD, 12/29/09
  • HbA1c Treatment Targets Cut CV Risk in Diabetics With Few Comorbidities - Medscape, 12/16/09 - "aggressive control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels--that is, to no higher than 6.5% or 7%--significantly improves cardiovascular risk over five years, but only in patients who aren't too old or sick at the outset"
  • HbA1c Levels Predict Carotid IMT in Diabetic Adolescents - Medscape, 11/13/09 - "For every 1% increase in HbA1c, the likelihood of having a thicker common carotid IMT increased by 35%, after adjustment for sex, systolic blood pressure z-score, and insulin use ... These data suggest that poor glycemic control is associated with structural changes in the carotid artery that are consistent with early atherosclerosis"
  • HbA1c is associated with intima media thickness in individuals with normal glucose tolerance - Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct 6 - "normal glucose tolerant individuals (NGT) ... 1h-glucose and HbA1c were significantly correlated to carotid IMT in individuals with NGT, while fasting and 2h-glucose were not informative. Only HbA1c was associated with IMT independent of other confounders, while 1h-glucose was not informative ... HbA1c was the most informative glycemic marker with respect to IMT in individuals with NGT"
  • Erectile function in men with diabetes type 2: correlation with glycemic control - Int J Impot Res. 2009 Sep 17 - "the level of HbA(1c) is significantly higher with declining degrees of potency (P-value=0.003). Also, there is an association between potency degree and glycemic control (P=0.002). We conclude that glycemic control is independently and inversely associated with ED in men with diabetes type 2"
  • Efficacy and safety of therapy with metformin plus pioglitazone in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial - Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 Mar 23 - "Mean HbA(1c) was reduced by 0.67% in patients receiving pioglitazone plus metformin versus an increase of 0.25% in those receiving metformin alone (p < 0.0001). After 8 weeks' treatment and until the end of the study, HbA(1c) was significantly lower with pioglitazone plus metformin and more patients in this group achieved an HbA(1c) < 6.5% (38.6% vs. 8.1%; p < 0.0001). FBG was also reduced by a significantly greater amount in patients receiving pioglitazone plus metformin compared with metformin monotherapy (-20.5 vs. 1.9 mg/dl; p < 0.0001). Combination therapy was associated with significantly increased HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and adiponectin, and significantly decreased levels of fasting insulin, free fatty acids, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-R) compared with metformin monotherapy" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Diabetes Linked To Cognitive Deterioration - Science Daily, 3/5/09 - "people with diabetes were 1.5 more likely to experience cognitive decline, and 1.6 more likely to suffer from dementia than people without diabetes ... suggests that higher-than-average levels of blood glucose (blood sugar) may have a role in this relationship ... in people with type 2 diabetes, higher levels of haemoglobin A1C (a measure of average blood glucose) are significantly associated with poorer performance on three cognitive tasks which require memory, speed and ability to manage multiple tasks at the same time. A higher A1C level was also associated with a lower score on a test of global cognitive function ... lowering A1C levels could slow the accelerated rate of cognitive decline experienced by people with diabetes"
  • Higher Blood Sugar Levels Linked to Lower Brain Function in Diabetics - Doctor's Guide, 2/11/09 - "The ongoing Memory in Diabetes (MIND) study, a sub-study of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Trial (ACCORD), found a statistically significant inverse relationship between A1C levels over a period of 2 to 3 months and subjects' scores on four cognitive tests ... This study adds to the growing evidence that poorer blood glucose control is strongly associated with poorer memory function and that these associations can be detected well before a person develops severe memory loss"
  • Doctors use diabetes test A1C as diagnostic tool- USA Today, 2/1/09 - "Within the next six months, a consensus by several leading diabetes organizations will lead to the publication of guidelines recommending the A1C test as a diagnostic tool for type 2 diabetes ... The benefit of the A1C test is that it can be taken at any time of day and is not thrown off by events of the day ... People who don't have diabetes typically have about a 6 or less reading"
  • HemoglobinA1c level in healthy Thai adults: reference interval and fasting plasma glucose - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009 Feb;83(2):e43-6. Epub 2009 Jan 8 - "Reference interval of HbA1c IFCC was 2.90-4.90%" - Note:  I saw this abstract last month and deleted it and have been thinking about it ever since so I did a medline search of "hba1c thailand" and found it again.  The point is that the range of hba1c was 2.90-4.90% in non-diabetics in Thailand.  Mine is 4.97% and I had two doctors tell me that was great.  In my opinion, and I'm not a doctor (Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering), American doctors are so used to seeing a high hba1c that they've lost track of what's normal.
  • HbA1c Tied to Cardiovascular Risks in Patients With Symptomatic HF - Medscape, 8/28/08 - "Over a median follow-up period of almost 3 years, the researchers found that for each 1% rise in HbA1c, the risk of cardiovascular death, heart failure hospitalization and overall mortality rose by about 25%. Moreover, this was true in subjects with and without a history of diabetes and whether or not ejection fraction was reduced or preserved"
  • Comparison of the effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on home blood pressure, glucose, and lipid profiles in patients with hypertension, chronic heart failure, and metabolic syndrome - Hypertens Res. 2008 May;31(5):921-9 - "telmisartan had more beneficial effects on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with relatively high HbA1c, serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Therefore, we concluded that telmisartan was more beneficial than olmesartan for controlling blood pressure in the early morning, as well as for improving glucose and lipid profiles in patients with hypertension, chronic heart failure, and metabolic syndrome" - Click here for why I feel that telmisartan should be the first line treatment for hypertension.
  • HbA1C, but not serum glycated albumin, is elevated in late pregnancy due to iron deficiency - Diabetes Care. 2008 Jul 3 - "HbA(1C) levels were elevated in late pregnancy due to iron deficiency. Serum GA may offer a better index for monitoring glycemic control in pregnancy"
  • Translating the A1C Assay Into Estimated Average Glucose Values - Diabetes Care. 2008 Jun 7 - "28.7 x A1C - 46.7"
  • Hemoglobin A1C Levels Strongly Linked to Subsequent Mortality in Diabetes - Medscape, 6/9/08 - "For participants without a previous diagnosis of diabetes, HRs for all-cause mortality steadily increased from the A1C reference category to the highest category (≥ 7.0%; HR, 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 - 3.25). In addition, A1C was associated with mortality from circulatory, endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immune diseases as well as from other and unknown causes"
  • New Insights In Diagnosing Diabetes May Help The Millions Who Are Undiagnosed - Science Daily, 5/27/08 - "The measurement of HbA1c does not require fasting, while current accepted tests require the patient to fast for at least eight hours. Furthermore, HbA1c more accurately reflects longer-term glucose concentration in the blood; other tests can easily be affected by short-term lifestyle changes, such as a few days of dieting or exercise. And finally, HbA1c laboratory methods are now well standardized and reliable ... HbA1c greater than 6 percent would qualify as being in need of follow-up; HbA1c greater than or equal to 6.5 percent confirmed by a glucose-dependent test should establish the diagnosis of diabetes" - Note:  I feel there is something to this.  My fasting glucose is always high yet my HbA1c is 4.97 (normal 4.7 to 6.2) and my 2 hour fasting glucose bounces a point or two about the low normal.
  • The Relationship Between A1C Levels & PAD Severity - Physician's Weekly, 11/19/07
  • Rosiglitazone Reduces Liver Fat and Insulin Requirements While Improving Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Control In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Requiring High Insulin Doses - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Oct 23 - "During rosiglitazone, HbA1c decreased from 8.9+/-0.4% to 7.8+/-0.3% (p=0.007) and insulin requirements from 218+/-22 to 129+/-20 IU/day (p=0.002). Liver fat content decreased by 46+/-9% from 20+/-3% to 11+/-3% (p=0.0002). Hepatic insulin sensitivity, measured from the % suppression of endogenous glucose production by insulin, increased from -40+/-7% to -89+/-12% (p=0.001). The % change in liver fat correlated with the % decrease in HbA1c (r=0.53, p=0.06), insulin dose (r=0.66, p=0.014), and suppression of endogenous glucose production (r=0.76, p=0.003)"
  • Insulin Linked to Colonic Polyps, Neoplasia - oncologystat.com, 10/23/07 - "those with poorly controlled diabetes, identified by a high serum level of hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), were significantly more likely to have advanced colonic adenomatous polyps, compared with diabetic patients with better glycemic control ... patients with poorly controlled diabetes were more than sixfold as likely to have advanced polyps and nearly sixfold as likely to have right-sided polyps, compared with patients who had better glycemic control. The average number of polyps found in poorly controlled patients was 5.5; in better-controlled patients, the average was 2.5 polyps per patient. Results from a third study reported at the meeting showed that having three or more polyps was the strongest predictor of risk for recurrent advanced neoplasia in the colon"
  • The Association of Elevated HbA1c on the Behavior of Adenomatous Polyps in Patients with Type-II Diabetes Mellitus - Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Oct 16 - "colonic adenomatous polyps (APs) ... univariate analysis (UA) ... UA demonstrated that patients with poorly controlled DM-2 had a significantly increased incidence of right-sided APs (P = 0.001), a greater number of APs (P < 0.005), more advanced APs (P < 0.005), a younger age of presentation (P = 0.001), a history of smoking (P = 0.05), and greater use of exogenous insulin (P = 0.01). Logistic regression, as measured by HbA1c, demonstrated that poorly controlled DM-2 independently predicted a greater prevalence of right-sided AP, a more advanced lesion at the time of presentation, a greater number of polyps, and greater use of exogenous insulin"
  • Hemoglobin A1c predicts diabetes but not cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic women - Am J Med. 2007 Aug;120(8):720-7 - "HbA1c levels are elevated well in advance of the clinical development of type 2 diabetes, supporting recent recommendations for lowering of diagnostic thresholds for glucose metabolic disorders. In contrast, the association of HbA1c with incident cardiovascular events is modest and largely attributable to coexistent traditional risk factors"
  • Thiazolidinedione increases serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products in type 2 diabetes - Diabetologia. 2007 Jul 18 - "At 6 months, both rosiglitazone and sulfonylurea resulted in a significant reduction in HbA(1c), fasting glucose and AGE"
  • Relation of increased hemoglobin a(1c) levels to severity of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes mellitus - Am J Cardiol. 2007 May 15;99(10):1468-9 - "the higher the hemoglobin A(1c) levels in patients with diabetes with PAD, the higher the prevalence of severe PAD"
  • New Data Shows Rimonabant Benefited Patients with Type 2 Diabetes by Improving Blood Sugar Control, Reducing Weight and Acting on Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors - Doctor's Guide, 12/5/06 - "treatment-naive type 2 diabetes patients receiving rimonabant 20mg per day for a duration of six months significantly lowered their HbA1c levels by 0.8% from a baseline value of 7.9 as compared to a reduction of 0.3% in the placebo group (P =.002). In addition, patients with an HbA1c level greater than or equal to 8.5% at baseline, significantly reduced their HbA1c by 1.9% with rimonabant as compared to 0.7% with placebo" - See rimonabant at International Antiaging Systems.
  • HbA1c - the gold standard in the assessment of diabetes treatment? - Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2006 Dec;131 Suppl 8:S243-6
  • Chronically High Blood Sugar Linked To Risk Of Cognitive Impairment - Science Daily, 8/9/06 - "Women with a glycosylated hemoglobin of seven percent or higher at baseline were four times more likely to develop MCI or dementia than women who tested at less than seven percent"
  • Periodontal Therapy May Help Diabetic Patients Improve Sugar Control - Doctor's Guide, 4/12/06 - "periodontal therapy may reduce a diabetic patient's HbA1c count by as much as 20% at three and six months following treatment"
  • High Blood Sugar Levels a Risk Factor for Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 9/14/05 - "Lowering blood sugar levels could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in both diabetics and non-diabetics ... Non-diabetic persons with HbA1c levels of 6% or higher had almost a two-fold greater heart disease risk compared to persons with an HbA1c level below 4.6%"
  • Rimonabant Study Shows Significant Improvements in Hba1c and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in People With Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 6/16/05
  • Metabolic Effect of Telmisartan [Micardis] and Losartan [Cozaar] in Hypertensive Patients with Metabolic Syndrome - Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2005 May 15;4(1):6 - "Telmisartan, but not losartan, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced free plasma glucose, free plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and HbAic. Following treatment, plasma glucose and insulin were reduced during the oral glucose tolerance test by telmisartan, but not by losartan. Telmisartan also significantly reduced 24-hour mean systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) compared with losartan"
  • Glycosylated haemoglobin levels and the severity of erectile function in diabetic men - BJU Int. 2005 Mar;95(4):615-7 - "This study suggests that the severity of ED is associated with increasing HbA(1c) levels in diabetic men"
  • High-Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Worsening Glycemic Control - Doctor's Guide, 11/10/04 - "Atorvastatin was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of developing an HbA1c greater than 6 -- both in non-diabetics and in diabetics"
  • Death Risk Rises With Blood Sugar - WebMD, 9/20/04 - "As your blood sugar level goes up, so does your risk of death and heart disease - even if you don't have diabetes ... every 1% increase in HbA1c ups the risk of death -- from all causes -- by 24% for men and 28% for women ... These are important studies because they show we should be concerned about blood glucose elevations even in people who do not have diabetes"
  • Hormone Therapy May Need to be Used Cautiously in Patients Taking Rosiglitazone - Doctor's Guide, 9/19/03 - "rosiglitazone reduced glucose levels from a mean of 9.15 to 7.5 mM/L; (P=0.013), insulin from 11.7 to 8.8 mU/L (P=0.026), haemoglobin A1c from 8.0% to 6.9% (P=0.001), triglycerides from 2.3 to 1.8 mM/L (P=0.009), systolic BP from 130 to 117 mm Hg (P=0.02), diastolic BP from 72 to 67 mm"
  • Indications and Management Strategies for Insulin Therapy in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 9/8/03 - "The American Diabetes Association goals for glucose control are a haemoglobin A1c level of less than 7%, a fasting glucose level between 90 and 130 mg/dL, and a post-prandial glucose concentration of less that 180 mg/dL"
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