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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 8/8/12.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Children's healthy diets linked to higher IQ - Science Daily, 8/7/12 - "We found that children who were breastfed at six months and had a healthy diet regularly including foods such as legumes, cheese, fruit and vegetables at 15 and 24 months, had an IQ up to two points higher by age eight ... Those children who had a diet regularly involving biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soft drinks and chips in the first two years of life had IQs up to two points lower by age eight"

Pioglitazone Is Associated With Risk for Bladder Cancer - Medscape, 8/7/12 - "Ever use of pioglitazone was associated with 83% higher risk for bladder cancer — a significant increase — compared with never users. The bladder cancer rate increased significantly with duration of pioglitazone use, with the highest rates in patients who were exposed for >2 years, and in patients whose cumulative dose exceeded 28,000 mg. Notably, no excess risk for bladder cancer was observed for patients who received rosiglitazone (Avandia)"

Sexual, Urological Disorders Linked to Waist Size - Medscape, 8/2/12 - "The researchers divided the men into 3 groups based on WCs of less than 90 cm (<36 inches; 153 men), 90 to 99 cm (36 - 39 inches; 137 men), and more than 100 cm (39+ inches; 119 men), to determine whether WC could be a simple metric to predict LUTS prevalence. Median age for all men was 57.6 years ... The overall prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms as measured by the IPSS did not differ significantly among the three WC groups ... "Sexual dysfunction significantly differed with WC. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction increased from 32.1% to 74.5% as WC increased (P = 0.001). The prevalence of ejaculatory dysfunction also increased from 21.4% to 64.7% as WC increased (P = 0.002)," they continue. In addition, the prevalence of ejaculatory dysfunction went up from 21.4% to 64.7% for the same groupings"

Strawberry extract protects against UVA rays, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/3/12 - "The team prepared human skin cell cultures (fibroblasts) and added strawberry extract in different concentrations (0.05, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml), the only exception being the control extract. Using ultraviolet light, the samples were then exposed to a dose "equivalent to 90 minutes of midday summer sun in the French Riviera." ... the strawberry extract, especially at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, displays photoprotective properties in those fibroblasts exposed to UVA radiation, it increases cell survival and viability and decreases damage in the DNA when compared with control cells ... But what molecules give strawberries their photoprotective properties? Scientists suspect that it could be the anthocyanins, which are pigments that give leaves, flowers and fruits their red colour" - See Natural Factors, BlueRich Super Strength Blueberry Concentrate, 500 mg, 90 Softgels (yielding 2.5% anthocyanins) at iherb.

Plant-based compound slows breast cancer in a mouse model - Science Daily, 8/2/12 - "The natural plant compound phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) hinders the development of mammary tumors in a mouse model with similarities to human breast cancer progression ... PEITC has shown to be effective as a chemopreventative agent in mice for colon, intestinal, and prostate cancer, by inducing apoptosis ... administering PEITC for 29 weeks was linked with a 56.3% reduction in mammary carcinoma lesions greater than 2mm ... Since chemoprevention trials are both expensive and time-consuming and necessitate years of follow-up, the authors feel that, "The discovery of biomarker(s) associated with exposure and activity is critical for clinical development of promising cancer chemopreventative agents." - See cruciferous vegetables supplement at Amazon.com.

Effects of Pycnogenol on Endothelial Function in Stable CAD - Medscape, 8/2/12 - "Recent studies suggested a blood pressure-lowering effect of Pycnogenol. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study involving 11 patients, supplementation with Pycnogenol 200 mg q.d. significantly reduced systolic blood pressure of patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension from 139.9 +/- 3.3 to 132.7 +/- 4.18 mmHg (P < 0.05) after 8 weeks of therapy, while diastolic blood pressure remained stable (93.8 +/- 1.23 vs. 92 +/- 1.7 mmHg, P = NS) ... This study demonstrates for the first time an improvement of endothelial function after 8-week treatment with Pycnogenol at a dose of 200 mg q.d. in patients with stable CAD. Pycnogenol significantly reduced oxidative stress as assessed by plasma levels of 8-isoprostanes, but left ADMA and SDMA as well as plasma ET-1 levels unaffected" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.

Supplement May Aid Vascular Dementia Memory Problems - Medscape, 8/1/12 - "at 9 months, there was a significant difference in Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in citicoline users vs nonusers ... A psychostimulant, citicoline has been shown to inhibit brain cell death associated with cerebral ischemia. It has also been shown to inhibit neurodegeneration and is able to increase neuroplasticity and noradrenaline and dopamine levels in the central nervous system ... Those in the active treatment group received oral citicoline at a dose of 500 mg twice a day" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.

Gluten-free: food fad or alternative remedy? - MSNBC, 7/31/12 - "Fads aside, research suggests more people are truly getting sick from the gluten found in wheat, rye and barley, but the reasons aren't clear ... In the most serious cases, gluten triggers celiac disease. The condition causes abdominal pain, bloating and intermittent diarrhea. Those with the ailment don't absorb nutrients well and can suffer weight loss, fatigue, rashes and other problems ... It was once considered extremely rare in the U.S. But about 20 years ago, a few scientists began exploring why celiac disease was less common here than in Europe and other countries. They concluded that it wasn't less common here; it was just under-diagnosed ... there may be more celiac disease today because people eat more processed wheat products like pastas and baked goods than in decades past, and those items use types of wheat that have a higher gluten content ... Volunteers who had symptoms were put on a gluten-free diet or a regular diet for six weeks, and they weren't told which one. Those who didn't eat gluten had fewer problems with bloating, tiredness and irregular bowel movements" - See Katz Gluten Free Products or glutenfree.com.

Curry Compound May Lower Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 7/31/12 - "All of the people in the study had been diagnosed with prediabetes. But according to the findings, none of the participants who took capsules of curcumin for nine months developed type 2 diabetes. By contrast, 16.4% of those who received a placebo did develop type 2 diabetes during the study period" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.

Going Gluten-Free? Don't Forget Fiber - U.S. News, 7/31/12 - "If you've recently adopted a gluten-free diet—eliminating wheat, barley, rye, and any food that contains derivatives of these ingredients—you may have inadvertently eliminated something else from your diet as well: fiber ... Choose a gluten-free fiber supplement" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber, Beyond Organic Fiber at iHerb.

The Bacteria Found in Carpeting - eHow.com - "The average homeowners' carpet harbors about 200,000 bacteria on every square inch, about 4,000 times as much as their toilet seat"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Effects of psyllium on metabolic syndrome risk factors - Obes Rev. 2012 Aug 5 - "High-fibre intake has been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS), cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Psyllium is one of the most widely used fibre supplements because it is reasonably cheap and is better tolerated than other fibre supplements. The review of the literature supports the notion that the consumption of psyllium provides benefits to many components of the MS. Psyllium supplementation does improve glucose levels and insulin response, blood pressure, as well as lipid profile in both animals and humans, thereby reducing metabolic risk factors. Appetite has also been reported to decrease after the consumption of psyllium in most studies"

A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation for Enhanced Response to a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Women With Major Depressive Disorder - Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Aug 1 - "Fifty-two women with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in addition to either creatine (5 g/day, N=25) or placebo (N=27) ... In comparison to the placebo augmentation group, patients receiving creatine augmentation showed significantly greater improvements in HAM-D score, as early as week 2 of treatment. This differential improvement favoring creatine was maintained at weeks 4 and 8" - See creatine at Amazon.com.

Low Hemoglobin A1c in Nondiabetic Adults: An elevated risk state? - Diabetes Care. 2012 Aug 1 - "Compared with participants with HbA(1c) in the normal range (5.0 to <5.7%), participants with low HbA(1c) were younger, less likely to smoke, had lower BMI, lower white cell count and fibrinogen levels, and lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and history of coronary heart disease. However, this group was more likely to have anemia and had a higher mean corpuscular volume. In adjusted Cox models with HbA(1c) of 5.0 to <5.7% as the reference group, HbA(1c) <5.0% was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13-1.55) and of cancer death (1.47, 95% CI: 1.16-1.84). We also noted nonsignificant trends toward increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes (1.27; 95% CI, 0.93-1.75) and respiratory causes (1.42, 95% CI: 0.78-2.56). There was a J-shaped association between HbA(1c) and risk of liver disease hospitalization"

Plasma long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe - Neurology. 2012 Aug 1 - "A total of 281 community dwellers from the Three-City Study, aged 65 years or older, had plasma fatty acid measurements at baseline and underwent MRI examinations at baseline and at 4 years. We studied the association between plasma EPA and DHA and MTL gray matter volume change at 4 years ... Higher plasma EPA, but not DHA, was associated with lower gray matter atrophy of the right hippocampal/parahippocampal area and of the right amygdala (p < 0.05, familywise error corrected). Based on a mean right amygdala volume loss of 6.0 mm(3)/y (0.6%), a 1 SD higher plasma EPA (+0.64% of total plasma fatty acids) at baseline was related to a 1.3 mm(3) smaller gray matter loss per year in the right amygdala. Higher atrophy of the right amygdala was associated with greater 4-year decline in semantic memory performances and more depressive symptoms ... The amygdala, which develops neuropathology in the early stage of AD and is involved in the pathogenesis of depression, may be an important brain structure involved in the association between EPA and cognitive decline and depressive symptoms" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.

Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug 1 - "Dietary magnesium might be related to colorectal tumor risk through the pivotal roles of magnesium in cellular metabolism, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation ... A case-control study on colorectal adenomas (768 cases; 709 polyp-free control subjects) and a meta-analysis of colorectal adenomas (3 case-control studies) and carcinomas (6 prospective cohort studies) were conducted. Dietary magnesium was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires in the case-control study and most studies in the meta-analyses ... The case-control study showed a nonsignificant inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of colorectal adenomas (OR for every 100-mg/d increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.06). However, inverse associations were observed only in subjects with BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥25, in subjects aged ≥55 y, and for advanced adenomas. Associations did not vary by the calcium-to-magnesium intake ratio. In the meta-analysis, every 100-mg/d increase in magnesium intake was associated with 13% lower risk of colorectal adenomas (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00) and 12% lower risk of colorectal cancer (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97)" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.

Associations of Bisphenol A Exposure With Heart Rate Variability and Blood Pressure - Hypertension. 2012 Jul 30 - "Recent studies have suggested that cardiovascular diseases are associated with the BPA exposure. The aim of present study was to investigate the associations of urinary BPA with heart rate variability and blood pressure ... We observed that urinary BPA was associated negatively with the root mean square of successive differences for heart rate and positively with blood pressure. The odds ratio of showing hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg) was 1.27 (95% CI, 0.85-1.88) in the fourth quartile compared with the first quartile of urinary BPA concentration. When the analyses were restricted to participants who did not report previous history of hypertension (n=258), the odds ratio was increased to 2.35 (95% CI, 1.33-4.17)"

n-3 Fatty acids inhibit transcription of human IL-13: implications for development of T helper type 2 immune responses - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jul 31:1-11 - "These data indicate the potential of n-3 fatty acids to attenuate IL-13 expression, and suggest that they may subsequently reduce allergic sensitisation and the development of allergic disease" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jul 31:1-9 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis ... We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial"

High intakes of protein and processed meat associate with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes - Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug 1:1-11 - "Dietary data were collected with a modified diet history method, including registration of cooked meals. During 12 years of follow-up, 1709 incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified. High protein intake was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 1.27 for highest compared with lowest quintile; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.49; P for trend = 0.01). When protein consumption increased by 5 % of energy at the expense of carbohydrates (HR 1.20; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.33) or fat (HR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.33), increased diabetes risk was observed. Intakes in the highest quintiles of processed meat (HR 1.16; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.36; P for trend = 0.01) and eggs (HR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.41; P for trend = 0.02) were associated with increased risk. Intake of fibre-rich bread and cereals was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (HR 0.84; 95 % CI 0.73, 0.98; P for trend = 0.004). In conclusion, results from the present large population-based prospective study indicate that high protein intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Replacing protein with carbohydrates may be favourable, especially if fibre-rich breads and cereals are chosen as carbohydrate sources"

The effects of bulking, viscous and gel-forming dietary fibres on satiation - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jul 31:1-8 - "Test products were cookies containing either: no added fibre (control), cellulose (bulking, 5 g/100 g), guar gum (viscous, 1.25 g/100 g and 2.5 g/100 g) or alginate (gel forming, 2.5 g/100 g and 5 g/100 g) ... In a separate study with ten subjects, 4 h gastric emptying rate of a fixed amount of test products was assessed by 13C breath tests. Ad libitum energy intake was 22 % lower for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (3.1 (sd 1.6) MJ) compared to control (4.0 (sd 2.2) MJ, P < 0.001). Intake of the other four products did not differ from control. Oral exposure time for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (2.3 (sd 1.9) min) was 48 % longer than for control (1.6 (sd 0.9) min, P = 0.01). Gastric emptying of the 5 g/100 g alginate product was faster compared to control (P < 0.05). We concluded that the addition of 5 g/100 g alginate (i.e. gel-forming fibre) to a low-fibre cookie results in earlier satiation. This effect might be due to an increased oral exposure time"

  • Alginic acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where it, through binding water, forms a viscous gum. In extracted form it absorbs water quickly; it is capable of absorbing 200-300 times its own weight in water.[1] Its colour ranges from white to yellowish-brown. It is sold in filamentous, granular or powdered forms"

Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation: enhancement of Natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response - Nutr J. 2012 Jul 31;11(1):53 - "These results may suggest a beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-gamma and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1beta, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people" - [Nutra USA] - See chlorophyll products at iHerb.

Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies - Stroke. 2012 Jul 31 - "For each serving per day increase in fresh red meat, processed meat, and total red meat consumption, the RR (95% CI) of total stroke were 1.11 (1.03-1.20), 1.13 (1.03-1.24), and 1.11 (1.06-1.16), respectively"

Health Focus (Liver Disease):

Related Topics:

Popular Supplements:

Alternative News:

  • Garlic extract attenuating rat liver fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β1 - Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul 24 - "These findings concurrently suggested that GE elicited therapeutic effect against liver fibrosis. Regression of liver fibrosis occurred by reducing myofibroblasts (through modulation of HSCs activation mechanisms), remodelling extracellular matrix (through increase of its degradation) and regenerating liver tissue and functions: three processes regulated by fine mechanisms where active TGF-β1 and tTG play a central role" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Soy protein alleviates symptoms of fatty liver disease, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/22/12 - "Almost a third of American adults have fatty liver disease, many of them without symptoms ... Obesity is a key risk factor for this condition, which can lead to liver failure ... When fat accumulates in an organ that's not supposed to store fat -- like the liver, that organ's vital function can be dangerously compromised ... Chen compared fat accumulation in the livers of lean and obese rats, which were assigned to either a diet containing casein, a milk-based protein, or a diet containing soy protein, for 17 weeks after weaning ... While diet had no effect on the liver profiles of lean animals, the obese rats that were fed soy showed a 20 percent reduction in triglycerides and overall fat accumulation in the liver"
  • Oral Tocotrienols Are Transported to Human Tissues and Delay the Progression of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score in Patients - J Nutr. 2012 Feb 1 - "The natural vitamin E family is composed of 8 members equally divided into 2 classes: tocopherols (TCP) and tocotrienols (TE). A growing body of evidence suggests TE possess potent biological activity not shared by TCP. The primary objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of TE (200 mg mixed TE, b.i.d.) and TCP [200 mg α-TCP, b.i.d.)] in vital tissues and organs of adult humans receiving oral supplementation ... α-TE was delivered to human brain at a concentration reported to be neuroprotective in experimental models of stroke. In prospective liver transplantation patients, oral TE lowered the Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in 50% of patients supplemented, whereas only 20% of TCP-supplemented patients demonstrated a reduction in MELD score. This work provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence demonstrating that orally supplemented TE are transported to vital organs of adult humans. The findings of this study, in the context of the current literature, lay the foundation for Phase II clinical trials testing the efficacy of TE against stroke and end-stage liver disease in humans" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Extract Suppresses NFκB Activation and Inflammatory Responses in Diet-Induced Obese Rats with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis - J Nutr. 2011 Dec 7 - "Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that exacerbate liver injury ... Adult Wistar rats were fed a low-fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF) diet containing no GTE or GTE at 1% or 2% (HF+2GTE) for 8 wk. The HF group had greater (P ≤ 0.05) serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases and hepatic lipids than the LF group. Both GTE groups had lower ALT and hepatic lipid than the HF group. In liver and epididymal adipose, the HF group had lower glutathione as well as greater mRNA and protein expression of TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and NFκB binding activity than the LF group. Compared to the HF group, the HF+2GTE group had greater glutathione and lower protein and mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines in both tissues. NFκB binding activities at liver and adipose were also lower, likely by inhibiting the phosphorylation of inhibitor of NFκB. NFκB binding activities in liver and adipose (P ≤ 0.05; r = 0.62 and 0.46, respectively) were correlated with ALT, and hepatic NFκB binding activity was inversely related to liver glutathione (r = -0.35). These results suggest that GTE-mediated improvements in glutathione status are associated with the inhibition of hepatic and adipose inflammatory responses mediated by NFκB, thereby protecting against NASH" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • α-Lipoic acid prevents mild portal endotoxaemia-induced hepatic inflammation and β cell dysfunction - Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Nov 16 - "Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: those with intraportal vehicle (saline) or low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.42 ng/kg/min) infusion, combined with oral administration of vehicle or LA, a potent antioxidant (60 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks ... The histopathological examination showed that inflammatory changes were clearly visible in liver and pancreatic islets of LPS-infused rats and rarely observed in those cotreated with LA. In addition, low-dose intraportal LPS infusion also significantly impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but not affect the systemic insulin sensitivity and metabolic clearance rate of insulin. LA administration markedly reversed LPS-induced β cell dysfunction. Conclusions  α-Lipoic acid cotreatment could significantly prevent mild portal endotoxaemia-induced chronic hepatic inflammation and impaired pancreatic insulin secretion in absence of changing systemic insulin resistance" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of folic acid intervention on ALT concentration in hypertensives without known hepatic disease: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 16 - "A total of 480 participants with mild or moderate essential hypertension and without known hepatic disease were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: (1) enalapril only (10 mg, control group); (2) enalapril-FA tablet (10 mg enalapril combined with 0.4 mg of FA, low FA group); and (3) enalapril-FA tablet (10 mg enalapril combined with 0.8 mg of FA, high FA group), once daily for 8 weeks ... This report included 455 participants in the final analysis according to the principle of intention to treat. We found a significant reduction in ALT level in the high FA group (median (25th percentile, 75th percentile), -0.6 (-6.9, 2.0)IU/l, P=0.0008). Compared with the control group, the high FA group showed a significantly greater ALT-lowering response in men (median ALT ratio (ALT at week 8 to ALT at baseline; 25th percentile, 75th percentile): 0.93 (0.67, 1.06) vs 1.00 (0.91, 1.21), P=0.032), and in participants with elevated ALT (ALT>40 IU/l) at baseline. There was no difference in ALT lowering between the control and the low FA group" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Combination Antioxidant Therapy May Help Fatty Liver - Medscape, 11/7/11 - "A combination of vitamin E and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) can improve the inflammatory and steatosis scores in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis ... combination therapy resulted in a 70% difference in change in tumor necrosis factors-alpha levels from baseline. ... ALA alone or vitamin E alone were not as effective ... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disease in the world ... In the United States, 20% of the general population and 75% to 92% of the morbidly obese population suffer from the disease" - See alpha lipoic acid products at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Effect of Lycopene against Radiation-induced Hepatic Toxicity in Rats - J Int Med Res. 2011;39(4):1239-52 - "Lycopene supplementation significantly reduced radiotherapy-induced oxidative liver injury" - See lycopene at Amazon.com.
  • Harvard study supports coffee’s anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 9/21/11 - "Five cups of coffee per day for two months were associated with significant metabolic benefits and live function ... the metabolic benefits were more pronounced in caffeinated coffee, a result that supports the hypothesis that caffeine is responsible for some of the apparent benefits ... Coffee is also a rich source of polyphenols ... one cup of the stuff could provide 350 milligrams of phenolics ... Of these, the most abundant compounds in coffee are chlorogenic acids, making up to 12 per cent of the green coffee bean. The most abundant of these compounds is caffeic acid ... recruited 45 healthy, overweight coffee drinking 40 year olds ... volunteers were asked to drink five cups of coffee per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water for eight weeks ... coffee consumption was associated with a 60% reduction in blood levels of a compound called interleukin-6, which can promote inflammation, compared with the water group ... In addition, levels of adiponectin – a hormone released from fat cells that plays an important role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy – also decreased in the caffeinated, but not decaffeinated group" - [Abstract]
  • Creatine Supplementation Prevents the Accumulation of Fat in the Livers of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet - J Nutr. 2011 Aug 31 - "In conclusion, creatine supplementation prevented the fatty liver induced by feeding rats a HF diet, probably by normalization of the expression of key genes of β-oxidation" - See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol attenuates steatosis in obese Zucker rats by decreasing fatty acid availability and reducing oxidative stress - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 28:1-9 - "Resveratrol reduced liver weight and TAG content. It did not modify the activity of lipogenic enzymes but it did increase CPT-Ia and ACO activities. NEFA and ALP were reduced in both resveratrol-treated groups. AST/GOT was reduced only by the lowest dose. ALT/GPT, TAG and adiponectin remained unchanged. Resveratrol reduced liver oxidative stress. This study demonstrates that resveratrol can protect the liver from NAFLD by reducing fatty acid availability. Moreover, resveratrol also protects liver from oxidative stress" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E helps diminish a type of fatty liver disease in children, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/27/11 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease among U.S. children. NAFLD ranges in severity from steatosis (fat in the liver without injury) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH (fat, inflammation, and liver damage). Fatty liver increases a child's risk of developing heart disease and liver cirrhosis ... after 96 weeks of treatment, 58 percent of the children on vitamin E no longer had NASH, compared to 41 percent of the children on metformin (a diabetes drug), and 28 percent on placebo. Vitamin E was better than placebo because it significantly reduced enlargement and death of liver cells ... These results suggest that vitamin E improves or resolves NASH in at least half of children, which we previously showed to be true in adults" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Limiting carbs, not calories, reduces liver fat faster, researchers find - Science Daily, 4/19/11 - "Curbing carbohydrates is more effective than cutting calories for individuals who want to quickly reduce the amount of fat in their liver ... could have implications for treating numerous diseases including diabetes, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD. The disease, characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the liver, affects as many as one-third of American adults. It can lead to liver inflammation, cirrhosis and liver cancer ... Weight loss, regardless of the mechanism, is currently the most effective way to reduce liver fat"
  • Protective effect of whey proteins against nonalcoholic fatty liver in rats Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Apr 13;10(1):57 - "Oral administration of the studied whey proteins products reduced the final body weight of rats. There was a significant reduction effect (P<0.05) of the tested proteins on hepatic triglycerides, liver enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level) and serum glucose. Feeding on whey proteins caused an increase in the reduced glutathione. Hepatic content of reduced glutathione was not affected by any of the used whey proteins, but it showed an increasing tendency (P>0.05). Liver histology showed an improvement of fatty infiltration in hepatocytes from whey protein groups and gives the histology of liver a normal appearance" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Aerobic exercise may improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Science Daily, 4/13/11 - "A study of 15 obese people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease revealed that the daily walks not only increase insulin sensitivity, but improve the liver's polyunsaturated lipid index (PUI), which is thought to be a marker of liver health ... The improvements are linked to an increase in the hormone adiponectin ... Adiponectin influences the body's response to insulin and is associated with a reduced risk of heart attack because of its anti-inflammatory properties"
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats: improvement by a combination of nutrients - Br J Nutr. 2011 Mar 22:1-8 - "treatment with a combination of four nutrients, i.e. R-α-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, nicotinamide and biotin, just as with pioglitazone, significantly improves glucose tolerance, insulin release, plasma NEFA, skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats ... A 3-month treatment with the four nutrients significantly improved most of these abnormalities in GK rats, and the effects of the nutrient combination were greater than those of pioglitazone for most of these indices. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with nutrients that are thought to influence mitochondrial function may be an effective strategy for improving liver dysfunction in GK diabetic rats"
  • Dietary Whey Protein Lowers the Risk for Metabolic Disease in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet - J Nutr. 2011 Feb 10 - "whey protein isolate (WPI) ... Livers from WPI mice had significantly fewer hepatic lipid droplet numbers and less deposition of nonpolar lipids. Furthermore, WPI improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We conclude that in mice receiving a HF diet, consumption of WPI results in higher basal metabolic rates and altered metabolism of dietary lipids. Because WPI mice had less hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance, WPI dietary supplements may be effective in slowing the development of fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Oral acetyl-L-carnitine therapy reduces fatigue in overt hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb 10 - "Fatigue is frequently reported in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and may be related to hyperammonemia. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) offers neuroprotective benefits and improves mitochondrial energetics and function ... At the end of the study period, the ALC-treated patients in the HE1 group showed significantly better improvement than did the placebo group in mental fatigue score (-1.7 compared with -0.3; P < 0.05), the fatigue severity scale (-6.4 compared with 2.3; P < 0.001), 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire score (17.1 compared with -2.5; P < 0.001), and Short Physical Performance Battery (2.1 compared with 0.2; P < 0.001); the HE2 group showed significantly better improvement in the fatigue severity scale (-8.1 compared with -5.1; P < 0.001) and 6-min walk test (19.9 compared with 2.3; P < 0.05). Significant decreases in NH(4)(+) were observed in both groups (P < 0.001)" - See acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
    • Hepatic encephalopathy - NIH - "Hepatic encephalopathy is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood"
  • Effects of a whey protein supplementation on intrahepatocellular lipids in obese female patients - Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 31 - "intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) ... 60 g/day whey protein supplement (WPS) for 4-weeks ... total liver volume (MR) ... IHCL were positively correlated with visceral fat and total liver volume at inclusion. WPS decreased significantly IHCL by 20.8 +/- 7.7%, fasting total TG by 15 +/- 6.9%, and total cholesterol by 7.3 +/- 2.7%. WPS slightly increased fat free mass from 54.8 +/- 2.2 kg to 56.7 +/- 2.5 kg, p = 0.005). Visceral fat, total liver volume, glucose tolerance, creatinine clearance and insulin sensitivity were not changed" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Whey protein holds fat fighting potential, suggests study - Nutra USA, 2/3/11 - "The amount of fat inside liver cells (known as intra-hepatocellular lipid concentrations – IHCL) in subjects fed a short term high fat diet has been previously shown to be reduced again through increasing dietary protein intake ... four weeks of supplementation with whey protein led to a significant decrease in IHCL of 21 percent, whilst fasting plasma triglyceride was observed to decrease by 15 percent, and total plasma cholesterol concentration decreased by over 7 percent" - [Abstract] - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Specific populations of gut bacteria linked to fatty liver - Science Daily, 1/31/11 - "A new research finding showing a strong relationship between complex microbial ecologies in human intestines and the common but serious medical condition known as fatty liver illustrates this paradox ... Choline deficiency also implicates genetics, since many people lack the genes to efficiently make choline internally ... The implication of the finding is that these groups of bacteria may be influencing the body's ability to properly use the choline available in food ... bioinformatics researchers at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte found a strong correlation between the relative abundances of two specific classes of bacteria and the development of fatty liver ... Those patients with the highest abundance of Gammaproteobacteria at the beginning of the study seemed to have the lowest fatty liver development. The ones with the least developed the most fatty liver ... Erysipeoltrichi showed exactly the opposite association, though this relationship was not quite as strong. So there seemed to be change going on in opposite directions"
  • Preventive Effects of Taurine on Development of Hepatic Steatosis Induced by a High-Fat/Cholesterol Dietary Habit - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Dec 2 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is also called hepatic steatosis and has become an emergent liver disease in developed and developing nations ... taurine (Tau) ... Tau shows preventive effects on the development of hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat/cholesterol dietary habit" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Spice in curry could prevent liver damage - Science Daily, 10/29/10 - "Curcumin, a chemical that gives curry its zing, holds promise in preventing or treating liver damage from an advanced form of a condition known as fatty liver disease ... non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Linked to obesity and weight gain, NASH affects 3 to 4 percent of U.S. adults and can lead to a type of liver damage called liver fibrosis and possibly cirrhosis, liver cancer and death ... High levels of leptin activate hepatic stellate cells, which are the cells that cause overproduction of the collagen protein, a major feature of liver fibrosis. The researchers found that among other activities, curcumin eliminated the effects of leptin on activating hepatic stellate cells, which short-circuited the development of liver damage" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Olive oil protects liver from oxidative stress, rat study finds - Science Daily, 10/29/10 - "researchers separated the rats into a control group, an olive oil group, and 6 groups that were exposed to the herbicide '2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid' with or without either whole olive oil, or one of two oil extracts -- the hydrophilic fraction or the lipophilic fraction. All rats given the herbicide showed signs of significant liver damage. However, extra virgin olive oil and hydrophilic fraction intake induced a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and a decrease in markers of liver damage ... The hydrophilic fraction of olive oil seems to be the effective one in reducing toxin-induced oxidative stress, indicating that hydrophilic extract may exert a direct antioxidant effect on hepatic cells" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Oct 14;9(1):116 - "The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group"
  • Oral vitamin D replacement is effective in chronic liver disease Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2010 Aug 27 - "25[OH]D was suboptimal in 101/158 (64%), including severe deficiency in 24 patients (15%). Vitamin D deficiency occurred in liver disease of all aetiologies, including patients with only mild liver disease. 25[OH]D increased by 60.0% (19.11+/-13.20nmol/l) in patients with deficiency after vitamin D replacement and decreased by 25.2% (-18.33+/-12.02nmol/l) in non-treated initially replete patients over a median of 4 months ... CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency improves with oral vitamin D supplementation and levels fall without supplementation. Chronic liver disease patients are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency regardless of etiology or severity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee and the liver: a potential treatment for liver disease? - Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Aug 26 - "Several studies consistently show that coffee drinkers have a reduced risk of abnormal liver function tests, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is a clear dose response to this benefit"
  • Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study in Japanese men and women - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4 - "The prevalence of NAFLD was 45.3% in men and 17.5% in women. In comparison with the first tertile, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the presence of NAFLD in the second and third tertiles for men taking eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were 0.59 (0.31-1.14) and 0.45 (0.23-0.90), respectively, (P for linear trend=0.024), and the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the presence of NAFLD in the second and third tertiles for men taking EPA+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 0.44 (0.23-0.86) and 0.48 (0.24-0.95), respectively, (P for linear trend=0.035). However, there was no significant relation between NAFLD and each of these nutrients in women.Conclusions:Dietary EPA and EPA+DHA may be independent and preventive nutrients for NAFLD in Japanese men" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Finally, Vitamin E May Work -- And It's in the Liver - Medscape, 7/6/10 - "We used to call this "fatty liver"; now it's got a fancier name -- it's "nonalcoholic steatohepatitis." ... It turned out that only the Vitamin E group managed to reach that level of significance" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • High fructose, trans fats lead to significant liver disease, says study - Science Daily, 6/22/10 - "mice fed the normal calorie chow diet remained lean and did not have fatty liver disease. Mice fed high calorie diets (trans-fat alone or a combination of trans-fat and high fructose) became obese and had fatty liver disease ... it was only the group fed the combination of trans-fat and high fructose which developed the advanced fatty liver disease which had fibrosis ... This same group also had increased oxidative stress in the liver, increased inflammatory cells, and increased levels of plasma oxidative stress markers"
  • Blueberry ameliorates hepatic fibrosis, study finds - Science Daily, 6/17/10 - "An increasing number of natural substances have been studied to explore if they have protective effects on the liver. Blueberries have unique effects on human retinal, brain and tumor cells, but reports about the effects of blueberries on liver diseases are lacking ... The authors suggest that blueberry consumption is beneficial for hepatic diseases (including fibrosis)" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Chromium attenuates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in KK/HlJ mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 May 27 - "Chromium supplementation prevented progression of NAFLD and the beneficial effects were accompanied by reduction of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, elevation of hepatic lipid catabolic enzyme, improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism, suppression of inflammation as well as resolution of oxidative stress, probably through enhancement of insulin signaling. Our findings suggest that chromium could serve as a hepatoprotective agent against NAFLD" - See ChromeMate® products at iHerb.
  • Effects of a 1-year dietary intervention with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched olive oil on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients: a preliminary study - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 May 13 - "Consumption of olive oil enriched with n-3 PUFA demonstrated a significant improvement of liver echo-texture and of the Doppler Perfusion Index after 12 months (after: 0.19 +/- 0.02 vs. pre: 0.15 +/- 0.03; P < 0.05), whereas no significant changes were seen at the end of follow-up in controls. Moreover, patients who consumed the olive oil enriched with n-3 PUFA showed a significant amelioration of liver enzymes, and of triglycerides (post: 132.8 +/- 63.7 vs. pre: 164.5 +/- 85.5 mg/dl; P = 0.04) in a general linear model adjusted for age and gender. Interestingly, patients reported to have a significant increase of adiponectin levels (post: 1,487.9 +/- 96.7 vs. pre: 1,143 +/- 24.8 mug/ml; P = 0.04)"
  • Vitamin E may be new boon for liver disease - MSNBC, 4/28/10 - "In the study published online in the New England Journal of Medicine, 247 adults with advanced fatty liver disease were randomly assigned to take a high dose of vitamin E (800 international units), the diabetes drug Actos or dummy pills for nearly two years ... Biopsies before and after treatment showed that liver function improved in 43 percent of those in the vitamin E group compared with 19 percent in the placebo group ... participants on the diabetes drug Actos also improved, but to a lesser degree and with a drawback: gaining 10 pounds on average, which remained even after they stopped taking the drug" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Indian spice may delay liver damage and cirrhosis, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/24/10 - "The findings showed that the curcumin diet significantly reduced bile duct blockage and curbed liver cell (hepatocyte) damage and scarring (fibrosis) by interfering with several chemical signalling pathways involved in the inflammatory process" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • High fructose corn syrup linked to liver scarring, research suggests - Science Daily, 3/22/10 - "The researchers found only 19 percent of adults with NAFLD reported no intake of fructose-containing beverages, while 52 percent consumed between one and six servings a week and 29 percent consumed fructose-containing beverages on a daily basis"
  • Pomegranate oil-seaweed mix may improve liver health and waist size - Nutra USA, 1/25/10 - "Results showed that body weight was significantly reduced by an average of 5.5 kg in people in the NAFLD group and 4.9 kg in the normal liver function group. Women in the placebo group lost an average of 1.4 kilos. In addition, women with NAFLD experienced improvements in waist circumference, body and liver fat content, liver enzymes, and serum triglycerides" - [Abstract] - 5.5 kg is 12.1 pounds - See FucoThin at Amazon.com
  • The effects of Xanthigen in the weight management of obese premenopausal women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and normal liver fat - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Jan;12(1):72-81 - "Xanthigen-600/2.4 mg (300 mg PSO + 300 mg brown seaweed extract containing 2.4 mg fucoxanthin) resulted in statistically significant reduction of body weight (5.5 +/- 1.4 kg NAFLD group and 4.9 +/- 1.2 kg NLF group, p < 0.05), waist circumference (NAFLD group only), body (3.5 +/- 1.9 kg NAFLD group, p < 0.001; 3.6 +/- 0.7 kg NLF group, p < 0.05) and liver fat content, liver enzymes (NAFLD group only), serum triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Weight loss and reduction in body and liver fat content occurred earlier in patients with NLF than in patients with NAFLD. Fucoxanthin (> 2.4 mg) and Xanthigen-400/1.6 mg (200 mg PSO + 200 mg brown seaweed extract containing 1.6 mg fucoxanthin) significantly increased REE in NAFLD subjects compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Xanthigen promoted weight loss, reduced body and liver fat content, and improved liver function tests in obese non-diabetic women. Xanthigen and Fucoxanthin also increased REE. This product may be considered a promising food supplement in the management of obesity" - See FucoThin at Amazon.com
  • Review article: omega-3 fatty acids - a promising novel therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec 30 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 10-35% of the adult population worldwide; there is no consensus on its treatment ... Omega-3 fatty acids are important regulators of hepatic gene transcription. Animal studies demonstrate they reduce hepatic steatosis, improve insulin sensitivity and reduce markers of inflammation. Clinical trials in human subjects generally confirm these findings but have significant design inadequacies. Conclusions Omega-3 fatty acids are a promising treatment for NAFLD which require to be tested in randomised placebo controlled trials" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Review supports omega-3 for liver health - Nutra USA, 1/6/10 - "A review of four human studies found that the fatty acids could improve liver health and function, and increase insulin sensitivity in people suffering from fatty liver, a condition that is usually symptomless but said to increase the risk for liver inflammation, and ultimately results in liver failure" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Milk thistle herb protects cancer patients from chemotherapy-associated liver toxicity - Science Daily, 12/27/09 - "Fifty children with ALL were enrolled in the study and were randomized to receive milk thistle or placebo for 28 days. At the start of the study, all of the children had evidence of liver inflammation as measured by elevations in blood levels of the liver enzymes, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and amino alanine transferase (ALT). When the investigators performed liver function tests on the children at day 56 (28 days after receiving the herb or placebo), children receiving milk thistle had improvements in their liver enzymes compared with children receiving a placebo. Specifically, the group that took milk thistle had significantly lower levels of AST and a trend towards significantly lower levels of ALT. Taking milk thistle also seemed to help keep fewer patients from having to lower the dose of their medications: chemotherapy doses were reduced in 61 percent of the group receiving milk thistle, compared with 72 percent of the placebo group. In addition, milk thistle appeared to be safe for consumption" - See silymarin (milk thistle) products at iHerb.
  • Herb May Treat Chemotherapy Liver Damage - WebMD, 12/14/09 - "The youths who took milk thistle had significantly lower levels of AST and a trend toward significant lower levels of ALT, the researchers say ... Milk thistle also seemed to help keep fewer patients from having to lower the dose of their chemotherapy drugs ... Chemotherapy doses were reduced in 61% of those on milk thistle, compared to 72% in the placebo group. Milk thistle appeared to be safe for consumption, the researchers write" - See silymarin (milk thistle) products at iHerb.
  • Antifibrotic effects of green tea - Science Daily, 11/18/09 - "The researchers drew a conclusion that green tea may protect liver cells and reduce the deposition of collagen fibers in the liver. Green tea provides a safe and effective strategy for improving hepatic fibrosis" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Medication Effective For Acute Liver Failure In Early Stages Of Disease, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 10/8/09 - "Researchers found that 52 percent of acute liver failure patients in mild to moderate comas survived when treated with NAC, compared to just 30 percent of those treated with only a placebo. In patients experiencing more severe coma, treatment with NAC did not result in a significant difference in survival rates" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Regular Aerobic Exercise Reduces Health Concerns Associated With Fatty Liver - Science Daily, 9/9/09
  • Liver Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism of Insulin-Deficient Mice Is Altered by trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid - J Nutr. 2009 Aug 19 - "Feeding mice the trans-10, cis-12 (t10c12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and liver steatosis. It has been hypothesized that CLA-induced liver steatosis is the result of increased hepatic lipogenesis stimulated by high insulin levels. We studied the effects of a 12-d t10c12CLA treatment (1 g/100 g diet) on liver carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-injected mice. STZ mice were characterized by insulin deficiency, hypertriglyceridemia, and depletion of liver triglyceride and glycogen. Remarkably, feeding t10c12CLA to diabetic mice (STZ-CLA) normalized these variables. Reconstitution of fat stores in the livers of STZ-CLA mice was associated with lower fatty acid (FA) oxidation rates and greater malonyl-CoA concentration than in STZ mice. FA translocase and VLDL receptor mRNA levels were greater in STZ-CLA than in STZ mice, suggesting that t10c12CLA increased liver lipid uptake. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels and AMP kinase phosphorylation were lower in STZ-CLA than in STZ mice, indicating that t10c12CLA may reduce glucogenic activity and promote glycogenesis in diabetic mice. Because glycemia and glucokinase expression were not modified by t10c12CLA treatment, we postulated that glycogen accumulation is likely not the result of an effect of t10c12CLA on plasma glucose utilization, but rather is due to the contribution of lactate, the concentration of which was higher in muscle of STZ-CLA mice. The results demonstrate that t10c12CLA stimulates liver lipid accumulation in the absence of insulin and, thus, suggest that t10c12CLA can improve liver carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in type I diabetic mice" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Nutritional Supplement, SAMe, Effective In Preventing Formation Of Primary Liver Cancer In Rats - Science Daily, 7/30/09 - "A new study investigated the effectiveness of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) in the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or primary liver cancer. SAMe, a widely available nutritional supplement, with little known side effects, was found to be effective in preventing the formation of HCC in rats" - [Abstract] - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • S-adenosylmethionine in the chemoprevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in a rat model - Hepatology. 2009 Apr 6 - "SAMe is effective in preventing HCC establishment but ineffective in treating established HCC because of induction of hepatic methyltransferases, which prevents SAMe level to reach high enough to kill liver cancer cells. SAMe's chemopreventive effect may be related to its proapoptotic action and its ability to inhibit angiogenes" - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin suppresses expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, leading to the inhibition of LDL-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells - Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 7 - "This curcumin, a constituent of turmeric, may be useful in preventing hypercholesterolemia-associated hepatic fibrogenesis" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsions Prevent and Reverse Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease: The Boston Experience - JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Jul 1 - "Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is the most prevalent and most severe complication of long-term parenteral nutrition. Its underlying pathophysiology, however, largely remains to be elucidated. The currently approved parenteral lipid emulsions in the United States contain safflower or soybean oils, both rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Mounting evidence indicates that the omega-6 PUFAs originating from plant oils in these lipid emulsions may play a role in the onset of liver injury. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions, in contrast, are primarily composed of omega-3 PUFAs, thus providing a promising alternative. The authors review the literature on the role of lipid emulsions in the onset of PNALD and discuss prevention and treatment strategies using a fish oil- based lipid emulsion. They conclude that a fish oil-based emulsion is hepatoprotective in a murine model of PNALD, and it appears to be safe and efficacious for the treatment of this type of liver disease in children" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Quercetin inhibits fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in rat-liver cells - Eur J Clin Invest. 2009 Jun 8 - "In hepatocytes from normal rats, the quercetin-induced decrease in both de novo fatty acid and TAG synthesis, with a consequent reduction in VLDL-TAG formation, may represent a potential mechanism contributing to the reported hypotriacylglycerolemic effect of quercetin" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Combination of vitamin K(2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ameliorates cumulative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma - J Hepatol. 2009 May 15 - "A 48-month follow-up revealed that the combination treatment with VK and ACE-I markedly inhibited the cumulative recurrence of HCC in association with suppression of the serum level of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); a central angiogenic factor. The serum level of lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein was also suppressed almost in parallel with VEGF. These beneficial effects were not observed with single treatment using VK or ACE-I" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Two Glasses Of Wine A Day Helps To Reduce Quantity Of Fat In Liver - Science Daily, 5/12/09 - "Alter four weeks, samples of liver and blood were taken from individuals of the three different groups for their subsequent analysis. It was shown that in the third group - the one treated with resveratrol -, infiltration of liver fat dropped in comparison with group two. After this and a number of other analyses, the researcher concluded that resveratrol reduces the severity of ESNA in models with rats because, in the animals treated with resveratrol, the percentage of the cells of affected liver cells was notably less in non-treated animals" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty Liver Disease: The Next Big Thing - Science Daily, 4/19/09 - "New research in The Journal of Physiology connects low aerobic capacity to another serious condition – non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) – and suggests that the resulting liver problems play a crucial step developing obesity-related illnesses ... Sufferers of NAFLD accumulate fat in their livers and have high levels of fat in their blood, amplifying the risk-factors of obesity. The disease leads to a form of liver damage called fibrosis, similar to the results of alcohol abuse"
  • Resveratrol inhibits the expression of SREBP1 in cell model of steatosis via Sirt1-FOXO1 signaling pathway - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Mar 13;380(3):644-9 - "Our results suggest that resveratrol may attenuate fat deposition by inhibiting SREBP1 expression via Sirt1-FOXO1 pathway and thus may have application for the treatment of NAFLD" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Why Diets High In High-fructose Corn Syrup (found In Soda And Processed Foods) Can Lead To Insulin Resistance - Science Daily, 3/3/09 - "mice on a high-fructose diet were protected from insulin resistance when a gene known as transcriptional coactivator PPARg coactivator-1b (PGC-1b) was "knocked down" in the animals' liver and fat tissue ... Fructose is much more readily metabolized to fat in the liver than glucose is and in the process can lead to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ... NAFLD in turn leads to hepatic insulin resistance and type II diabetes"
  • Fat-free Diet Reduces Liver Fat In Fat-free Mice, Researchers Report - Science Daily, 2/13/09
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Medical Complications Of Obesity, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "Our study shows for the first time that lipids called protectins and resolvins derived from omega-3 fatty acids can actually reduce the instance of liver complications, such as hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, in obese people" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Aspirin May Prevent Liver Damage That Afflicts Millions, Study Finds - Science Daily, 1/26/09 - "Simple aspirin may prevent liver damage in millions of people suffering from side effects of common drugs, alcohol abuse, and obesity-related liver disease"
  • New Therapeutic Properties Of N-acetyl-L-cysteine Discovered - Science Daily, 1/19/09 - "N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) combined with mesalamine produces a significant improvement in patients suffering from ulcerative colitis ... N-acetyl-L-cysteine, is a drug normally used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to minimize the effects of cold and flu. Its hepatic protective properties also make this drug a useful tool in paracetamol intoxications ... N-acetyl-L-cysteine reduced the negative effects caused by azathioprine, a immunosuppressant of clinical use, on the liver" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • How Did Glycine Significantly Decrease Liver Injury? - Science Daily, 10/31/08 - "Recent studies demonstrated that dietary glycine protected both the lung and liver against lethal doses of endotoxin in rat or other animals and improved graft survival after liver transplantation" - See L-glycine products at iHerb.
  • Bilberry extract may ease the damages of stress: study - Nutra USA, 10/28/08 - "Mice supplemented with an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (Mirtoselect, Indena) at doses of 50, 100, and 200 milligrams per kilograms per day experienced lower ALT levels than non-supplemented restrained animals (17.23 versus 107.68 units per litre, respectively)"
  • Low-carb Diets Alter Glucose Formation By The Liver - Science Daily, 10/20/08 - "a low-carbohydrate diet changes hepatic energy metabolism. When carbohydrates are restricted, the liver relies more on substances like lactate and amino acids to form glucose, instead of glycerol ... They suggest that the shift in glucose metabolism associated with a low carbohydrate diet could be beneficial in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to improved disposal of hepatic fat"
  • Resveratrol Prevents Fat Accumulation In Livers Of 'Alcoholic' Mice - Science Daily, 10/14/08 - "The accumulation of fat in the liver as a result of chronic alcohol consumption could be prevented by consuming resveratrol, according to a new study with mice. The research found that resveratrol reduced the amount of fat produced in the liver of mice fed alcohol and, at the same time, increased the rate at which fat within the liver is broken down" - [WebMD] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Common In Patients With IBD, Chronic Liver Disease - Science Daily, 10/13/08 - "analyzed vitamin D levels of 504 inflammatory bowel disease patients ... almost 50 percent of the patients were Vitamin D deficient at some point, with 11 percent being severely deficient ... 92.4 percent of chronic liver patients had some degree of vitamin D deficiency and at least one third were severely deficient. Severe vitamin D deficiency was more common among cirrhotics" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Patients With IBD, Chronic Liver Disease at Increased Risk of Vitamin D Deficiencies - Doctor's Guide, 10/7/08 - "conducted analysed vitamin D levels of 504 patients with IBD ... researchers found almost 50% of the patients were vitamin D deficient at some point, with 11% being severely deficient ... with hepatitis C virus (HCV) ... 92.4% of the patients had some degree of vitamin D deficiency and at least one-third was severely deficient" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Can Taurine Be A Potent Antioxidant Drug In The Future? - Science Daily, 9/19/08 - "Taurine is a potent antioxidant with hepatoprotective effects. Organelle based changes in hepatocytes after taurine treatment in experimental liver fibrosis were searched systematically and organelle injury scores decreased were found to decrease significantly" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Protective Effects of Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Extract on Restraint Stress-Induced Liver Damage in Mice - J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 9 - "Bilberry extract (containing 42.04% anthocyanins) was oral administrated to mice at 50, 100, and 200 mg/(kg.day) for five days, which remarkably decreased plasma ALT level to 17.23 +/- 2.49 U/L at the dose of 200 mg/(kg.day) and thus alleviated stress-induced liver damage. In addition, bilberry extracts increased glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C levels and significantly decreased MDA and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the liver tissues. These results suggest that bilberry extract plays an important role in protecting against restraint stress-induced liver damage by both scavenging free radicals activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect. This study showed the beneficial health effects of bilberry extract through its antioxidative action" - See bilberry at Amazon.com.
  • Red wine keeps liver healthy, suggests new study - Nutra USA, 5/22/08 - "People who drank up to one glass of wine a day saw the risk of liver disease due to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) cut in half ... In contrast, compared with wine drinkers, people who reported modest consumption of beer or spirits had over four times the odds of having suspected NAFLD"
  • Fast-Food Liver Damage Can Be Reversed, Experts Say - Science Daily, 4/30/08 - "Diets high in fast food can be highly toxic to the liver and other internal organs, but that damage can be reversed ... You can likely reverse the damage to your liver and other vital organs if you simply give up the unhealthy lifestyle"
  • Effect of Coenzyme Q(10), Riboflavin and Niacin on Tamoxifen treated postmenopausal breast cancer women with special reference to blood chemistry profiles - Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Apr 22 - "Tamoxifen (TAM) ... TAM also has estrogenic activity on liver and endometrium causing severe oxidative stress with various biochemical derangements. Coenzyme Q(10), Riboflavin and Niacin (CoRN) are well-known potent antioxidants and protective agents against many diseases including cancer ... A statistically significant alteration in various blood chemistry parameters, such as serum total bilirubin (S. BIL), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), uric acid (UA), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferases (LCAT), potassium, calcium and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in sole TAM-treated group, was favorably reverted back to near normal levels on combinatorial therapy with CoRN" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin b(12) on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury - Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Feb;31(2):309-11 - "Vitamin B(12) decreased the blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and clearly inhibited the overaccumulation of collagen fibrils ... vitamin B(12) could be an effective hepatoprotective agent" - Note:  Aspartate aminotransferase is the AST reading on blood tests and alanine aminotransferase is the ALT.  See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Extract Protects Leptin-Deficient, Spontaneously Obese Mice from Hepatic Steatosis and Injury - J Nutr. 2008 Feb;138(2):323-331 - "Histologic evaluation showed a significant reduction in hepatic steatosis in GTE-fed obese mice only and histologic scores were correlated with hepatic lipid concentration (r = 0.84; P < 0.05), which was reduced dose dependently by GTE. GTE protected against hepatic injury as suggested by 30-41% and 22-33% lower serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, respectively" - Note:  Alanine aminotransferase is the "ALT" you see on blood tests and aspartate aminotransferase is the "AST" you see on blood tests.  See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea shows benefits against fatty liver - Nutra USA, 1/22/08 - "the obese mice fed the GTE-supplemented diets had 23 to 25 per cent less body than the obese mice fed the non-supplemented diet. Moreover, the lean mice fed the GTE-supplemented diets had 11 to 20 per cent less body than their lean counterpart on the non-supplemented diet ... Measurements of the blood enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, used as markers of liver damage, showed that GTE-supplementation was associated with 30 to 41 per cent and 22 to 33 per cent lower activities, respectively" - [Abstract] - Note:  Alanine aminotransferase is the "ALT" you see on blood tests and aspartate aminotransferase is the "AST" you see on blood tests.  See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Treatment With NAC Is Associated With Better Outcomes For Children With Liver Failure, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/3/08 - "The children who received NAC spent fewer days in intensive care, and in the hospital overall. 43 percent survived with their native liver, compared to 22 percent of children who did not receive NAC. And death rates while awaiting transplant, after transplant, and after ten years were notably lower in children who had received NAC" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary lipoic acid-dependent changes in the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in rats - Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec 7;:1-9 - "Lipoic acid profoundly decreased serum and liver concentrations of TAG, and also lowered serum concentrations of phospholipid and NEFA, and the concentration of cholesterol in the liver. A hypoglycaemic effect of this compound was also observed. Lipoic acid dose-dependently decreased the activity and mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, ATP-citrate lyase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and pyruvate kinase in the liver despite that reductions were considerably attenuated in the NADPH-producing enzymes. This compound also dose-dependently lowered the mRNA levels of spot 14, adiponutrin, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and Delta5- and Delta6-desaturases. In addition, lipoic acid dose-dependently lowered serum concentrations of insulin and leptin, but increased those of adiponectin. Lipoic acid appeared to reduce hepatic lipogenesis and hence decreases serum and liver lipid levels. Alterations in serum concentrations of insulin and (or) adiponectin may trigger this consequence" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Quick-burning Carbs May Cause Fatty Liver: Low-glycemic Diet Protected Mice - Science Daily, 9/21/07 - "After six months, the mice weighed the same. However, mice on the low-glycemic index diet were lean, with normal amounts of fat in throughout their bodies. Mice on the high-glycemic index diet had twice the normal amount of fat in their bodies, blood and livers"
  • Starchy diet 'may damage liver' - BBC News, 9/21/07 - ""High-glycaemic" foods - rapidly digested by the body - could be causing "fatty liver", increasing the risk of serious illness ... After six months on the diet, the mice weighed the same, but those on the high GI diet had twice the normal amount of fat in their bodies, blood and livers"
  • The Effect of a Silybin-Vitamin E-Phospholipid Complex on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Pilot Study - Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Apr 5 - "silybin conjugated with vitamin E and phospholipids could be used as a complementary approach to the treatment of patients with chronic liver damage"
  • Zinc and the Liver: An Active Interaction - Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Apr 6 - "zinc could protect against liver diseases"
  • Sugar intake may hurt liver - Reuters, 10/31/06 - "fatty liver disease was more common in the group given sugar water, especially when exposed to a type of sugar called fructose ... These data support the hypothesis that high fructose consumption may not only (damage) the liver through over-feeding, but may be directly" toxic"
    Is Coffee or Tea Good for Your Liver? - Medscape, 10/2/06 - "The consumption of coffee and tea is associated with a reduced risk of CLD"
  • Nutritional Support in Chronic Liver Disease - Doctor's Guide, 4/21/06
  • Prolonged n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation ameliorates hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study - Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Apr 15;23(8):1143-51 - "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ... Supplementation with n-3 PUFA improves biochemical, ultrasonographic and haemodynamic features of liver steatosis. Our study supports the efficacy of n-3 PUFA as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of NAFLD"
  • Coffee and Tea Can Reduce Risk of Chronic Liver Disease - Doctor's Guide, 12/2/05 - "people at high risk for liver injury may be able to reduce their risk for developing chronic liver disease significantly by drinking more than two cups of coffee or tea daily. This preventative effect was only seen in people at higher risk for liver disease due to heavy alcohol intake, being overweight or having diabetes or iron overload"
  • Component Of Green Tea Protects Injured Livers In Mice - Science Daily, 3/9/05

Other News:

  • 'Thrilling New Agent' for Liver Cancer - Medscape, 6/28/12
  • Low Testosterone as an Independent Predictor of Mortality in Men with Chronic Liver Disease - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Jan 27 - "in a Cox proportional hazard model, both low total (p= 0.02) and free testosterone (p= 0.007) remained predictive of death independently of established prognostic factors, such as the Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and serum sodium levels. A decrease in TT by 1 nmol/L and in cFT by 10 pmol/L was associated with an 8% increase in mortality"
  • Abnormal liver tests associated with increased death rates in people over 75 - Science Daily, 8/2/11 - "The study covered liver tests for abnormal levels of asparate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, with patients being followed up for an average of just over seven years. The elderly patients with the abnormal liver tests were compared with patients with normal liver tests ... Abnormal AST was associated with a sevenfold increased risk of death from liver disease and a 56% increase in cancer risk ... Abnormal ALP was associated with nearly a six-fold increased risk of death from liver disease. It also raised the risk of death from a number of other illnesses: heart disease (34%), cancer (61%) and respiratory disease (58%) ... Patients who had two or more elevated liver tests faced a 54% increased risk of all-cause mortality and the risk of dying from cancer doubled. They were 17 times more likely to die from liver disease than patients with no abnormal liver tests"
  • Obesity greater risk for fatty liver than moderate amounts of alcohol, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/30/11 - "It turned out that the amount of fat in the liver was linked with obesity and insulin resistance and was almost not at all affected by the red wine. Specifically, after three months, none of the the wine drinkers had developed fatty liver or elevated liver transaminases"
  • Plasma adiponectin-an independent indicator of liver fat accumulation - Metabolism. 2011 May 10 - "Adiponectin is a very strong predictor for liver brightness, even after adjustment for the numerous other metabolic risk factors, markers of inflammation, and novel obesity-related peptide hormones. Whether low adiponectin levels predict to liver fat accumulation remains to be explored in a future prospective follow-up of this cohort"
  • Fatty liver: How a serious problem arises - Science Daily, 4/6/11 - "Up to 80 percent of obese people develop fatty liver disease, which is regarded a typical characteristic of the dangerous metabolic syndrome. Deposition of fat in the liver may lead to chronic liver inflammation and even to liver cancer. In addition, fatty liver is considered to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis"
  • New data show non-alcoholic fatty liver disease will reach epidemic status in the US - Science Daily, 4/2/11 - "if the current rates of obesity and diabetes continue for another two decades, the prevalence of NAFLD in the US is expected to increase by 50% in 2030"
  • A Molecular Link Between Sleep and Liver Fat - nih.gov, 3/21/11 - "As many as 1 in 4 Americans are estimated to have excess liver fat, which can lead to inflammation and damage that could eventually cause liver failure. Fat production in the liver is known to be affected by circadian rhythms. Past studies have shown that disrupting circadian rhythms in mice causes the animals to develop excess liver fat. They also suffer from obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome ... during the day, when mice are asleep and fasting, HDAC3 and rev-erbα help prevent the liver from producing fat. As predicted, when either protein was removed from the mouse liver, the fat metabolism genes became active regardless of time or activity level. This led to a rapid buildup of fat in the liver ... This may explain in part why altered circadian rhythms in people who do shift work is associated with metabolic disorders"
  • Mayo researchers find mortality rates from liver diseases underestimated - Science Daily, 1/1/10 - "Statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) rank mortality related to chronic liver disease and cirrhosis as the 12th most common cause of death in adults in the U.S. Using a modified definition that includes diseases such as viral hepatitis, liver cancer and obesity-related fatty liver disease (liver diseases), Mayo Clinic-led researchers have found that liver-related mortality is as high as fourth for some age groups [45 and 64 years], and eighth overall"
  • High doses of ursodeoxycholic acid ineffective for NASH patients, study suggests - Science Daily, 7/20/10
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with high mortality rates - Science Daily, 2/1/10
  • Drinking Coffee Slows Progression Of Liver Disease In Chronic Hepatitis C Sufferers, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 10/24/09 - "Patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced liver disease who drink three or more cups of coffee per day have a 53% lower risk of liver disease progression than non-coffee drinkers"
  • Second-hand Smoking Results In Liver Disease, Study Finds - Science Daily, 9/10/09
  • Fat In The Liver -- Not The Belly -- May Be A Better Marker For Disease Risk - Science Daily, 8/25/09 - "Having too much liver fat is known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ... when fat collects in the liver, people experience serious metabolic problems such as insulin resistance, which affects the body's ability to metabolize sugar. They also have increases in production of fat particles in the liver that are secreted into the bloodstream and increase the level of triglycerides"
  • Liver Disease 'Shrunk' By Blood-pressure Drug - Science Daily, 6/2/09 - "analysed a small clinical trial of losartan, a drug normally prescribed for hypertension, on 14 patients in Spain, who had Hepatitis C ... Half of the patients in the trial saw the scars in their liver shrink allowing the organ to repair itself ... Researchers believe that the drug blocks the signalling pathway so that the liver myofibroblasts die, removing the source of scar tissue. As the scar tissue breaks up, the damaged area of the liver is repaired by the body"
  • Environmental Pollution Increases Risk Of Liver Disease, Study Finds - Science Daily, 5/29/09
  • Statin Drugs May Protect Against Cancer And Also Result in Fewer Gallbladder Removals - Science Daily, 5/5/09 - "The research team found a significant inverse association between having statin prescriptions filled and the risk of developing HCC. There was a trend toward stronger risk reduction with longer and more frequent statin prescriptions"
  • Daily Drinking Rather Than Binge Drinking Is Biggest Risk Factor In Serious Liver Disease, New Study Finds - Science Daily, 3/20/09
  • Iron Overload: An Important Co-factor In The Development Of Liver Disease In Alcoholics - Science Daily, 2/24/09 - "A high prevalence of iron overload was found in alcoholics, which appeared to be related to the development of liver disease [odds ration for having liver disease in alcoholics with transferrin saturation greater than 45% was 2.2 (95% CI 1.37-3.54)]"
  • Hepatitis C Is Killing Liver Cells - Science Daily, 2/5/09
  • Tobacco Smoke And Alcohol Harm Liver Worse As Combo - Science Daily, 2/3/09
  • Fat-free Diet Reduces Liver Fat In Fat-free Mice, Researchers Report - Science Daily, 2/3/09
  • Fatty Liver Disease Medication May Have No Effect - Science Daily, 1/13/09
  • Antibiotics: Single Largest Class Of Drugs Causing Liver Injury - Science Daily, 12/8/08 - "Antibiotics are the single largest class of agents that cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) ... DILI is the most common cause of death from acute liver failure and accounts for approximately 13 percent of cases of acute liver failure in the U.S"
  • Pioglitazone Improves Fatty Liver Disease in Nondiabetics - Medscape, 11/5/08
  • New Imaging Technology Accurately Identifies A Broad Spectrum Of Liver Disease - Science Daily, 11/1/08
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers in the treatment of NASH/NAFLD: Could they be a first-class option? - Adv Ther. 2008 Oct 29 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ... nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) ... In our opinion there are two major advantages of ARBs that make them a possible therapeutic option for treating NASH and MS: their specific antihypertensive effect, and their impact on liver fibrosis. In light of this, and based on the current evidence (including existent human studies), we can speculate that some ARBs like telmisartan, candesartan, and losartan can be beneficial in treating NASH/NAFLD and its consequences, and further larger controlled clinical trials will bring consistent data into this field"
  • Cortisol And Fatty Liver: Researchers Find Cause Of Severe Metabolic Disorders - Science Daily, 9/11/08 - "The researchers in Herzig's team specifically switched off the cortisol receptor in the livers of mice, thus blocking the hormone's effect. As a result, the triglyceride level in the livers of the experimental animals dropped considerably"
  • Normal ALT Levels May Mask Advanced Fibrosis In Liver Disease Patients - Science Daily, 9/4/08
  • The effects of 8 months of metformin on circulating GGT and ALT levels in obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome - Int J Clin Pract. 2008 Jun 19 - "treated with metformin 1500 or 2550 mg/day for 8 months ... Mean weight, serum ALT and GGT decreased from 100.3 to 96.6 kg (p < 0.0001), 29.7 to 25.8 U/l (p = 0.012) and 21.4 to 16.9 U/l (p < 0.0001) respectively ... In women with baseline ALT > 29.7 U/l (median), ALT reduction was highly significant (p = 0.005); however in those with baseline ALT < 29.7 U/l, ALT did not change despite similar weight reduction. There was no difference in reductions in ALT and GGT when the two metformin doses were compared"
  • Belly Fat May Affect Liver Function - Science Daily, 6/10/08 - "It has been shown that people who store body fat in their abdomens are at greater risk to develop diabetes and other chronic illnesses, but why this happens has remained unclear ... Our study found lipid release from abdominal fat was substantially elevated during the night, which may be a primary mechanism leading to insulin resistance, a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes"
  • Elevated Liver Enzymes Linked to Development of Diabetes - Medscape, 6/9/08 - "Compared with individuals in the lowest quintile of GGT, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes were 1.13 for quintile 2, 1.67 for quintile 3, 2.77 for quintile 4, and 2.67 for quintile 5 (p for linear trend < 0.001). For ALT, the corresponding HRs were 0.93, 1.28, 1.35, and 1.93, respectively"
  • Fatty Liver Linked To Increased Risk Of Diabetic Kidney Disease - Science Daily, 5/29/08 - "For patients with type 2 diabetes, a condition called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be an important risk factor for diabetes-related chronic kidney disease (CKD)"
  • Elevated AST, ALT Linked to Higher Future Mortality Rate - Medscape, 4/1/08 - "An abnormal AST up to 2 times ULN was associated with a 32% increased risk of death, and more than 2 times ULN was linked to a 78% increase in risk ... An abnormal ALT up to 2 times ULN was associated with a 21% increase in mortality risk, and more than 2 times ULN was associated with a 59% increase in risk ... patients with normal AST or ALT had a lower than expected risk of death (SMR 0.95 for AST and 0.61 for ALT)"
  • Elevated Liver Enzymes Associated With Higher Future Mortality - Science Daily, 3/4/08 - "Liver enzymes include aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and high concentrations in the blood tend to indicate liver disease ... elevated AST was associated with a significantly increased standardized mortality rate (SMR). Elevated ALT was also associated with a higher SMR. The SMRs ranged between 1.21 and 1.78 ... elevated serum AST and ALT may be markers of cardiovascular diseases (nearly 34 percent of the deaths in the study population were due to cardiovascular causes)"
  • Fatty Fast Food, Idleness May Vex Liver - WebMD, 2/13/08 - "The students were asked to gain 5% to 15% of their body weight in a month by eating at least two daily meals at fast-food restaurants and adopting a sedentary lifestyle ... On average, the students gained 14 pounds, added 2.6 inches to their waistline, and padded their body fat percentage by 3.7% during the study ... Blood samples provided by the students throughout the study show a spike in levels of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT). ALT levels rose quickly -- typically within a week -- after the students started the fast-food diet"
  • Liver damage 'could be reversed' - BBC News, 12/27/07
  • Association between serum TSH, free T4 and serum liver enzyme activities in a large cohort of unselected outpatients - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Oct 17 - "GGT and ALT concentrations increased steadily across the increasing TSH categories (P < 0.0001 for trends), ranging from mean values of 36 to 62 U/l for GGT and from 29 to 41 U/l for ALT, respectively. Similarly, there was a negative, graded, relationship between serum GGT and ALT concentrations and free T4 categories"
  • Liver dysfunction in paediatric obesity: a randomized, controlled trial of metformin - Acta Paediatr. 2007 Sep;96(9):1326-32 - "In obese adolescents fed ad libitum, metformin (a) prevented the rise in ALT concentrations that were observed in placebo-treated subjects at the 3 to 5 month time-points (p < 0.05); (b) reduced (p < 0.01) the percentage of all ALT values exceeding 40 U/L; and (c) caused a modest (10%) but statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum ALT in Caucasian subjects. Metformin had no effect on ALT levels or the ALT to AST ratio in the five African American adolescents enrolled in the study ... metformin might reduce the rates or severity of liver dysfunction in selected high-risk adolescents"
  • Fatty Liver and the Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 3/1/07
  • The association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance in 20 obese children and adolescents - Acta Paediatr. 2007 Jan;96(1):109-12 - "The high prevalence of insulin resistance we found in children with NAFLD confirms the suggestion that there may be an association between insulin resistance and NAFLD in obese children"
  • Elevated ALT Levels Predict Risk of Death From Liver Cancer - Medscape, 11/2/06 - "Upper limits of normal range from 30 IU/L to 60 IU/L, depending on the laboratory. "We want to reset it southward of 30 IU/L," ... ALT levels are a reflection of the general vascular condition ... If the level is above 30, then that person probably has a problem — fatty liver or some vascular disease, including occlusive coronary artery disease"
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