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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 4/25/12.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Why drinking alcohol is linked to breast cancer - Science Daily, 4/23/12 - "ethanol-treated human mammary cells had an increase in free radical production, oxidative stress and the activation of cellular mechanisms that cause cells to increase their proliferation rate ... So if you are a woman who naturally expresses higher levels of CYP2E1 and you consume alcohol, you would be at a greater risk for developing breast cancer than a woman who expresses lower amounts of CYP2E1"

Vitamin E in diet protects against many cancers, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/23/12 - "Our message is that the vitamin E form of gamma-tocopherols, the most abundant form of vitamin E in the American diet, and delta-tocopherols, also found in vegetable oils, are beneficial in preventing cancers while the form of vitamin E, alpha- tocopherol, the most commonly used in vitamin E supplements, has no such benefit ... the most commonly used form of vitamin E supplements, alpha-tocopherol, not only did not prevent prostate cancer, but its use significantly increased the risk of this disease among healthy men" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.

Shingles Vaccine Deemed Safe in Large Study - WebMD, 4/23/12 - "analyzed data of 193,083 vaccinated patients aged 50 or older for certain side effects that could be related to the shingles vaccine ... The researchers found no increased risk in the first six weeks after vaccination for stroke, heart disease, infections of the brain or spinal cord or other brain diseases, Bell's palsy, or Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, which can occur when the virus that causes shingles affects the facial nerve near an ear"

Soy protein alleviates symptoms of fatty liver disease, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/22/12 - "Almost a third of American adults have fatty liver disease, many of them without symptoms ... Obesity is a key risk factor for this condition, which can lead to liver failure ... When fat accumulates in an organ that's not supposed to store fat -- like the liver, that organ's vital function can be dangerously compromised ... Chen compared fat accumulation in the livers of lean and obese rats, which were assigned to either a diet containing casein, a milk-based protein, or a diet containing soy protein, for 17 weeks after weaning ... While diet had no effect on the liver profiles of lean animals, the obese rats that were fed soy showed a 20 percent reduction in triglycerides and overall fat accumulation in the liver"

Soda consumption increases overall stroke risk - Science Daily, 4/20/12 - "The research analyzed soda consumption among 43,371 men who participated in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study between 1986 and 2008, and 84,085 women who participated in the Nurses' Health Study between 1980 and 2008 ... In sugar-sweetened sodas, the sugar load may lead to rapid increases in blood glucose and insulin which, over time, may lead to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and inflammation. These physiologic changes influence atherosclerosis, plaque stability and thrombosis -- all of which are risk factors of ischemic stroke ... In comparison, coffee contains chlorogenic acids, lignans and magnesium, all of which act as antioxidants and may reduce stroke risk. When compared with one serving of sugar-sweetened soda, one serving of decaffeinated coffee was associated with a 10 percent lower risk of stroke"

Low-Fat Dairy May Help Lower Stroke Risk - WebMD, 4/19/12 - "The study researchers, who tracked the diets of nearly 75,000 men and women over 10 years, found that those who ate the most low-fat dairy foods and beverages were 12% less likely to have a stroke than those who ate the least ... The most plausible explanation is that low-fat dairy food lowers blood pressure ... consuming full-fat dairy products such as whole milk was not associated with risk of stroke ... those who ate a daily average of four servings of low-fat cheeses, yogurts, and milk significantly lowered their risk of stroke compared to those who did not include any low-fat dairy in their diet"

Big doses of vitamin C may lower blood pressure - Science Daily, 4/18/12 - "Miller and his colleagues reviewed and analyzed data from 29 randomized, controlled, previously published clinical trials that reported systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure values and also compared vitamin C intake to a placebo. What they found is that taking an average of 500 milligrams of vitamin C daily -- about five times the recommended daily requirement -- reduced blood pressure by 3.84 millimeters of mercury in the short term. Among those diagnosed with hypertension, the drop was nearly 5 millimeters of mercury ... By comparison, Miller says, patients who take blood pressure medication such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics (so-called "water pills") can expect a roughly 10 millimeter of mercury reduction in blood pressure" - Note:  I don't consider 500 mg "Big doses". See vitamin C at Amazon.com.

Joint failures potentially linked to oral bacteria - Science Daily, 4/18/12 - "The culprit behind a failed hip or knee replacements might be found in the mouth. DNA testing of bacteria from the fluid that lubricates hip and knee joints had bacteria with the same DNA as the plaque from patients with gum disease and in need of a joint replacement ... it might be the reason why aseptic loosening or prosthetic wear of the artificial joints fail within 10 years when no infection appears to be present ... For a long time, we've suspected that these bacteria were causing problems in arthritis patients, but never had the scientific evidence to support it" - See Xlear Spry Peppermint Gum, 600-Count (Made with 100% xylitol) at Amazon.com.

Nutrients Promote Eye Health in Aging, Says Panel - Medscape, 4/17/12 - "They pointed out that many multivitamin supplements do not contain nutrients important for eye health, including lutein, zeaxanthin, and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. "Taking a supplement specifically designed for eye health that contains these key nutrients, in addition to a general nutritional supplement, may therefore be a better approach to filling dietary shortfalls,""

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Higher Vitamin D Dietary Intake Is Associated With Lower Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A 7-Year Follow-up - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Apr 13 - "Women who developed AD (n = 70) had lower baseline vitamin D intakes (mean, 50.3 +/- 19.3 μg/wk) than nondemented (n = 361; mean intake = 59.0 +/- 29.9 μg/wk, p = .027) or those who developed other dementias (n = 67; mean intake = 63.6 +/- 38.1 μg/wk, p = .010). There was no difference between other dementias and no dementia (p = .247). Baseline vitamin D dietary intakes were associated with the onset of AD (adjusted odds ratio = 0.99 [95% confidence interval = 0.98-0.99], p = .041) but not with other dementias (p = .071). Being in the highest quintile of vitamin D dietary intakes was associated with a lower risk of AD compared with the lower 4 quintiles combined (adjusted odds ratio = 0.23 [95% confidence interval = 0.08-0.67], p = .007) ... Higher vitamin D dietary intake was associated with a lower risk of developing AD among older women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Which is the preferred angiotensin II receptor blocker-based combination therapy for blood pressure control in hypertensive patients with diabetic and non-diabetic renal impairment? - Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012 Apr 10;11(1):32 - "Telmisartan, a long-acting ARB with preferential pharmacodynamic profile compared with several other ARBs, and the only ARB with an indication for the prevention of CV disease progression, is available in two SPC formulations, telmisartan/HCTZ and telmisartan/amlodipine"

Effects of higher- versus lower-protein diets on health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr 18 - "Higher-protein diets probably improve adiposity, blood pressure and triglyceride levels, but these effects are small and need to be weighed against the potential for harms"

Does Lithium Prevent Alzheimer's Disease? - Drugs Aging. 2012 Apr 14 - "Lithium salts have a well-established role in the treatment of major affective disorders. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have provided evidence that lithium may also exert neuroprotective effects. In animal and cell culture models, lithium has been shown to increase neuronal viability through a combination of mechanisms that includes the inhibition of apoptosis, regulation of autophagy, increased mitochondrial function, and synthesis of neurotrophic factors. In humans, lithium treatment has been associated with humoral and structural evidence of neuroprotection, such as increased expression of anti-apoptotic genes, inhibition of cellular oxidative stress, synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cortical thickening, increased grey matter density, and hippocampal enlargement ... A recent placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) showed that long-term lithium treatment may actually slow the progression of cognitive and functional deficits, and also attenuate Tau hyperphosphorylation in the MCI-AD continuum" - See lithium supplement at Amazon.com.

  • Fountain of youth from the tap? Environmental lithium uptake promotes longevity, scientists demonstrate in worms - Science Daily, 2/18/11 - "A regular uptake of the trace element lithium can considerably promote longevity ... even a low concentration of lithium leads to an increased life expectancy in humans as well as in a model organism, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans ... the Jena scientists analyzed the mortality rate in 18 adjacent Japanese municipalities in relation to the amount of lithium contained in tap water from the respective regions. "We found that the mortality rate was considerably lower in those municipalities with more lithium in the drinking water," Ristow explains the key finding. In a second experiment, the Jena scientists examined exactly this range of concentration in the model organism C. elegans. The result was confirmed: "The average longevity of the worms is higher after they have been treated with lithium at this dosage," ... we know already that a higher uptake of lithium through drinking water is associated with an improvement of psychological well-being and with decreased suicide rates"

Health Focus (Alpha Lipoic Acid):

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Insulin Resistance - Dr. Weil - "Supplements: ... Coenzyme Q10 ... Alpha-lipoic acid ... Magnesium ... Chromium"
  • Combination Antioxidant Therapy May Help Fatty Liver - Medscape, 11/7/11 - "A combination of vitamin E and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) can improve the inflammatory and steatosis scores in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis ... combination therapy resulted in a 70% difference in change in tumor necrosis factors-alpha levels from baseline. ... ALA alone or vitamin E alone were not as effective ... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disease in the world ... In the United States, 20% of the general population and 75% to 92% of the morbidly obese population suffer from the disease" - See alpha lipoic acid products at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • New Approach Discovered To Lowering Triglycerides - Science Daily, 3/30/09 - "In the lab animals, supplements of lipoic acid lowered triglyceride levels up to 60 percent ... supplements of lipoic acid appeared to affect triglyceride levels through two pathways. After eating, lipoic acid supplementation increased the rate of disappearance of triglycerides in the bloodstream. And supplements also reduced the genetic expression of enzymes in the liver that synthesize triglycerides ... Lipoic acid supplements have in various studies been shown to be an appetite suppressant ... The amount of lipoic acid supplementation used in these laboratory experiments would equate to about two grams per day for a 150-pound person"
  • Lipoic acid and carnitine combo show diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 2/18/08 - [Abstract] - "the combination of LA and LCAR increased the mass, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial DNA expression, and fatty acid oxidation in the fat cells ... However, the treatments with LA or ALC alone at the same concentrations showed little effect on mitochondrial function and biogenesis ... Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine have become very hot after our reports on the complementary effects on improving memory and ambulatory activity in old rats"
  • Lipoic Acid Could Reduce Atherosclerosis, Weight Gain - Science Daily, 1/14/08 - "lipoic acid supplements reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in two types of mice that are widely used to study cardiovascular disease, by 55 percent and 40 percent, respectively. The supplements were also associated with almost 40 percent less body weight gain, and lower levels of triglycerides in very low-density lipoproteins" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Lipoic Acid Explored As Anti-aging Compound - Science Daily, 5/17/07 - "mice supplemented with lipoic acid have a cognitive ability, behavior, and genetic expression of almost 100 detoxification and antioxidant genes that are comparable to that of young animals"
  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplements review - ConsumerLab.com, 5/16/07 - "two alpha lipoic acid supplements contained significantly less of this ingredient than promised on their labels"
  • Four powerhouse nutrients - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 4/05 - "L-carnitine shuttles fuel into cells to be burned as energy; coenzyme Q10 sparks the energy within the cells; ribose is a component of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); and alpha-lipoic acid increases ATP levels"
  • R-Dihydro-Lipoic Acid - The Optimal Form of Lipoic Acid - Life Extension Magazine, 2/05
  • Testing of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplements By Consumerlab.com Finds Most Meet Label Claims :: Natural and Nutritional Products Industry Center :: News - NPI Center, 12/21/04 - "one of 21 alpha-lipoic acid supplements recently tested contained only 15% of the alpha-lipoic acid that it claimed ... There is fairly good evidence that alpha-lipoic acid can be help people with diabetes"
  • The Advantage of Single Daily Dosages of Herbal Medicines - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 9/15/04 - "Based upon the clinical research over the last 30 years and the pharmacokinetics of immediate-release alpha-lipoic acid, it appears to be obviously superior to the timed-release product"
  • Antioxidant [alpha]-Lipoic Acid Provides Relief for Diabetic Polyneuropathy - Doctor's Guide, 6/20/03 - "After 3 weeks, alpha-lipoic acid had a 24.1% improvement over placebo ... for TSS [Total Symptom Score] and 16.0% for NIS [Neuropathy Impairment Score]"
  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid Effective Against Burning Mouth Syndrome - New Hope Natural Media, 5/15/03
  • Alpha Lipoic Acid Helping the Fight against Diabetes - Physician's Weekly, 5/12/03 - "the over-the-counter antioxidant supplement alpha lipoic acid has been effective against the burning, numbness and pain that often is associated with diabetic neuropathy. The antioxidant works mainly as a pain medication and was clinically shown to have few side effects"
  • Antioxidant Soothes Diabetic Neuropathy - WebMD, 4/11/03 - "Alpha lipoic acid seems to actually change the metabolism of the nerve or blood supply to the nerve ... It is a very strong antioxidant and it is assumed that oxidation plays a role in the development of diabetes ... This means the substance -- produced in very small amounts by the body and also found in foods such as potatoes and red meat -- protects against damage by cell-ravaging "free radicals." This oxidation process is implicated in various diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and neurologic conditions including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's ... alpha lipoic acid improves the function of cell "transporters" that carry and distribute glucose. "This helps insulin do its role,"" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon alpha lipoic acid products.
  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid Helpful in Diabetic Neuropathy - Medscape, 3/7/03 - "Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) rapidly and significantly reduces sensory symptoms and pain of diabetic neuropathy"
  • 12 Ways to Feel and Look Younger - WebMD, 10/25/02 - "In addition to the effective antioxidant vitamin C, Morris says CoQ10, vitamin E, alpha lipoic acid (another antioxidant), and perhaps some of those "mental acuity" mixtures in the health-food store should be in your medicine cabinet"
  • ALC and Alpha-Lipoic Acid - Dr. Janson's Newsletter, 7/02 - "The recent studies in rats show that ALC (especially when combined with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid) can protect the brain from the oxidative damage related to aging, and can protect the mitochondrial membranes ... when older animals are supplemented with ALC and lipoic acid they are more physically active, have better short-term memory, and overall enhanced cognitive function. (They also have better liver function because of the same protection of the mitochondria, with increased mitochondrial metabolism and reduced oxidative damage.) ... It appears that these nutrients also help the heart, especially when taken together. While ALC helps restore cardiac carnitine levels, and improves cardiac energy, the aging heart also becomes sensitive to oxidative stress. For protection from such stress, you need to combine the ALC with alpha-lipoic acid (LA) ... It is apparent that the accelerated aging that results from lifestyle choices, stress, and oxidative exposures, can be slowed or even reversed"
  • Do Anti-aging Supplements Really Work? - Life Extension Magazine, 6/02 - "The National Academy of Sciences has published three new reports showing that aging may be partially reversible with currently available supplements"
  • Putting Antioxidants To Use In Functional Formulas - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 5/02 - "Clinical studies have found that it can improve insulin function, helping to improve glucose tolerance in people with diabetes.15,16 Some researchers have suggested that long-term use of alpha-lipoic acid may help prevent adult-onset diabetes"
  • The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in his newest book, The Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ... DHA ... NADH ... Alpah Lipoic Acid ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes lycopene, gamma tocopherol, vinpocetine, SAMe, folic acid, carnosine, glutathione, DMAE, Huperzine A, probiotics, MSM, secretagogues, arginine pyroglutamate, IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and grape skin/seed extracts"
  • The Hard-Liver's Guide to the Liver - WebMD, 10/8/02
  • The Prediabetic Epidemic - Nutrition Science News, 3/01 - "Supplements to Regulate Glucose and Insulin ... Alpha-Lipoic Acid ... Only recently have researchers understood its antioxidant actions quench free radicals responsible for many diabetic complications. It also lowers glucose levels—by 10 to 30 percent—and improves insulin function ... Vitamin E ... Vitamin C ... Chromium ... Silymarin"
  • Sustain the Brain - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 - "ALA may protect the body from oxidative damage by enhancing detoxifying agents such as glutathione, which occurs in the brain and serves as an antioxidant in these tissues ... Results of animal studies demonstrate that ALA can reduce damage to neurons caused by toxic substances that are by-products of inflammatory processes.12 Another animal study showed memory improvement in aged rats given ALA ... Clinical trials conducted in Germany have shown ALA to be valuable for treating diabetic polyneuropathy, a disease involving the peripheral nerves. Supplementation was shown to improve motor and sensory nerve conduction"
  • ALA Eases Diabetic Neuropathy Symptoms - Nutrition Science News, 11/00
  • Some Diabetics Buck Tradition and Turn to Herbs - WebMD, 10/9/00 - "Researchers have submitted study results to the journal Diabetes Care for another natural product -- alpha lipoic acid, known by the brand name Glucotize. The product "lowers blood sugar levels, which is excellent," ... "Because that's what causes a lot of diabetic complications.""
  • Lipoic Acid: The Universal Antioxidant - Nutrition Science News, 10/00
  • Staying Young Forever, Putting new research findings into practice - Life Extension Foundation, 12/99 - "lipoic acid is the only antioxidant that can boost the level of intracellular glutathione, a cellular antioxidant of tremendous importance. Besides being the body's primary water-soluble antioxidant and a major detoxification agent, glutathione is absolutely essential for the functioning of the immune system"
  • Alpha Lipoic Acid For Diabetes, Atherosclerosis And Aging - Life Extension Magazine, 3/96


  • α-Lipoic acid prevents mild portal endotoxaemia-induced hepatic inflammation and β cell dysfunction - Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Nov 16 - "Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: those with intraportal vehicle (saline) or low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.42 ng/kg/min) infusion, combined with oral administration of vehicle or LA, a potent antioxidant (60 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks ... The histopathological examination showed that inflammatory changes were clearly visible in liver and pancreatic islets of LPS-infused rats and rarely observed in those cotreated with LA. In addition, low-dose intraportal LPS infusion also significantly impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but not affect the systemic insulin sensitivity and metabolic clearance rate of insulin. LA administration markedly reversed LPS-induced β cell dysfunction. Conclusions  α-Lipoic acid cotreatment could significantly prevent mild portal endotoxaemia-induced chronic hepatic inflammation and impaired pancreatic insulin secretion in absence of changing systemic insulin resistance"
  • Effect of α-lipoic acid on sperm quality, reproductive tract measures in thinner exposed rats - Andrologia. 2011 Sep 15 - "The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA, an universal antioxidant) on thinner-induced testicular toxicity regarding spermatological features, body and reproductive tract measures in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five treatment groups, eight rats in each. Control group was treated with placebo. Group O was given only olive oil. The group L received only α-lipoic acid. Thinner + Lipoic Acid group received thinner + α-lipoic acid and group T received only thinner. Thinner alone administration caused significant decreases in body and some reproductive organ weights, sperm count, motility and sperm membrane integrity, and significant increases in seminal vesicle weight and abnormal sperm rates compared with the values in the control group. However, concomitant administration of thinner with α-lipoic acid provided significant improvements in sperm parameters compared with values in alone group T.  In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that α-lipoic acid has a protective effect against thinner-induced reproductive dysfunction in male rats" - See alpha lipoic acid products at Amazon.com.  I assume that the thinner is something like this:
  • Dietary Intakes of Arachidonic Acid and {alpha}-Linolenic Acid Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Adults - J Nutr. 2011 Apr 20 - "arachidonic acid (AA) ... Participants in the highest quartile of ALA intake had a 54% lower risk of hip fracture than those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: HR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.26-0.83). Men in the highest quartile of AA intake had an 80% lower risk of hip fracture than those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: HR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.04-0.96). No significant associations were observed among intakes of EPA, DHA, EPA+DHA, or fish. These findings suggest dietary ALA may reduce hip fracture risk in women and men and dietary AA may reduce hip fracture risk in men"
  • α-Lipoic acid can improve endothelial dysfunction in subjects with impaired fasting glucose - Metabolism. 2011 Jan 19 - "Our data showed that IFG subjects have impaired endothelial function and that antioxidant α-lipoic acid can improve endothelial function through a decrease of oxygen-derived free radicals"
  • Efficacy and safety of high-dose α-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy - Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Sep;90(35):2473-2476 - "total symptom score (TSS) ... 73.27% patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy improved after treatment with α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks versus 18.27% with placebo. TSS declined by 2.6 +/- 2.3 with α-lipoic acid. And it was more than 0.7 +/- 1.4 versus placebo (P < 0.05). TSS decreased quickly after treatment with α-lipoic acid for 2 weeks (P < 0.05). And it was better than placebo. Individual symptom scores of pain, extremity numbness, burning sensation or resting abnormal sensations were significantly diminished as compared to those before treatment and placebo group (all P < 0.05). Nerve conduction velocity had no change. HbA1c further decreased at the end of trial after α-lipoic acid treatment (P < 0.05). The incidence rates of adverse effects were 25.4% vs 11.8% in the treatment and control groups. The major manifestation was burning sensation from throat to stomach (12.7%)"
  • α-Lipoic acid has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties: an experimental study in rats with carrageenan-induced acute and cotton pellet-induced chronic inflammations - Br J Nutr. 2010 Nov 15:1-12 - "α-Lipoic acid (ALA) has been termed the 'ideal' antioxidant, a readily absorbed and bioavailable compound capable of scavenging a number of free radicals, and it has been used for treating diseases in which oxidative stress plays a major role ... We showed that ALA exhibited anti-inflammatory effects on both acute and chronic inflammations, and a strongly anti-oxidative potency on linoleic acid oxidation. Moreover, the administration of CAR induced oedema in the paws. ALA significantly inhibited the ability of CAR to induce: (1) the degree of acute inflammation, (2) the rise in MPx activity, (3) the increases of GST and iNOS activities and the amount of LPO and (4) the decreases of GPx, GR and SOD activities and the amount of GSH. In conclusion, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of ALA, which has a strong anti-oxidative potency, could be related to its positive effects on the antioxidant system in a variety of tissues in rats"
  • alpha-Lipoic acid protects diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice from nephropathy - J Diabetes Complications. 2010 Aug 26 - "LA supplementation markedly protected the beta cells, reduced cholesterol levels, and attenuated albuminuria and glomerular mesangial expansion in the diabetic mice. Renoprotection by LA was equally effective regardless of whether the dietary supplementation was started 4 weeks before, simultaneously with, or 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes by STZ. LA supplementation significantly improved DN and oxidative stress in the diabetic mice. Severity of albuminuria was positively correlated with level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) in the kidney (r(2)=0.62, P<.05). Diabetes significantly changed the kidney expression of Rage, Sod2, Tgfb1 and Ctgf, Pdp2, nephrin, and Lias. LA supplementation corrected these changes except that it further suppressed the expression of the Lias gene coding for lipoic acid synthase"
  • Alpha-lipoic acid improves vascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes: a placebo-controlled randomized trial - Eur J Clin Invest. 2009 Dec 27 - "600 mg alpha-lipoic acid or placebo. Results FBF responses were comparable at baseline. After treatment, FBF reactivity to ACh and GTN was unchanged in subjects receiving placebo. By contrast, ALA treatment increased endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to ACh (P < 0.05) but not to GTN compared with baseline. Conclusions Intravenous ALA treatment improves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes, in the absence of effects on forearm vasomotor function. If this salutary action translates into vascular risk reduction remains to be established"
  • Dietary lipoic acid supplementation can mimic or block the effect of dietary restriction on life span -Mech Ageing Dev. 2008 Apr 22;129(6):341-348 - "Ad libitum feeding a diet supplemented with lipoic acid can therefore act as mimetic of DR to extend survival"
  • Switching from pathogenetic treatment with alpha-lipoic acid to gabapentin and other analgesics in painful diabetic neuropathy: a real-world study in outpatients - J Diabetes Complications. 2008 Apr 8 - "The daily costs for alpha-lipoic acid were considerably lower than those for gabapentin or several frequently used drug combinations. The frequency of outpatient visits was 3.8 times per 3 months during the treatment period with alpha-lipoic acid, while it increased to 7.9 per 3 months after switching to gabapentin or the other pain medications. In conclusion, switching from long-term treatment with alpha-lipoic acid to central analgesic drugs such as gabapentin in painful diabetic neuropathy was associated with considerably higher rates of side effects, frequencies of outpatient visits, and daily costs of treatment. The pathogenic treatment option represents for the practicing diabetologist an effective, safe, and cost-effective treatment option for the majority of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Lipoic acid supplementation and endothelial function - Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Mar 17 - "Endothelial dysfunction is caused by all the recognized cardiovascular risk factors and has been implicated in the complex processes leading to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Short-term treatment with lipoic acid is shown in the current issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology to improve endothelial function of aortic rings of old rats. The age-related decrease in phosphorylation of nitric oxide synthase and Akt was improved by lipoic acid supplementation. The improved phosphorylation status may have been due to reduced activity of the phosphatase PPA2, associated with decreased levels of endothelial ceramide induced by lipoic acid. Neutral sphingomyelinase activity was also reduced by lipoic acid, which was due, at least in part, to increased glutathione levels in endothelial cells"
  • Lipoic acid significantly restores, in rats, the age-related decline in vasomotion - Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 25 - "In old animals, endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings was decreased, GSH levels and its redox state in aortic endothelia were over 30% lower and nSMase activity and endothelial ceramide levels were three-fold increased, relative to young (2-4 mo) rats. LA treatment of old animals improved relaxation in aortic rings, reversed the changes in endothelial GSH, in nSMase activities and in ceramide levels. Similar effects on GSH levels and nSMase activity in old rats were also induced by treatment with GSH monoethylester. Activation (by phosphorylation) of eNOS was decreased by about 50% in old rats and this age-related decrease was partially reversed by LA treatment" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Co-enzyme Q10 and Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Response of Rabbit Urinary Bladder to Repetitive Stimulation and In Vitro Ischemia - Urology. 2008 Feb 15 - "CoQ10 showed no protective effect. alpha-LA resulted in increased contractile responses of the control bladder and showed a moderate protective effect for all forms of stimulation. The combination, however, showed a significantly greater increase in the contraction of the control bladder and a greater protective effect than alpha-LA alone"
  • R-alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L: -carnitine complementarily promote mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes - Diabetologia. 2008 Jan;51(1):165-74 - "Treatments with the combination of LA and ALC at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 mumol/l for 24 h significantly increased mitochondrial mass, expression of mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial complexes, oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3L1 adipocytes. These changes were accompanied by an increase in expression of Pparg, Ppara and Cpt1a mRNA, as well as increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (Nrf1 and Nrf2). However, the treatments with LA or ALC alone at the same concentrations showed little effect on mitochondrial function and biogenesis" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com and acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperglycaemia during OGTT in impaired glucose tolerance - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Dec 7
  • Dietary lipoic acid-dependent changes in the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in rats - Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec 7;:1-9 - "Lipoic acid profoundly decreased serum and liver concentrations of TAG, and also lowered serum concentrations of phospholipid and NEFA, and the concentration of cholesterol in the liver. A hypoglycaemic effect of this compound was also observed. Lipoic acid dose-dependently decreased the activity and mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, ATP-citrate lyase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and pyruvate kinase in the liver despite that reductions were considerably attenuated in the NADPH-producing enzymes. This compound also dose-dependently lowered the mRNA levels of spot 14, adiponutrin, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and Delta5- and Delta6-desaturases. In addition, lipoic acid dose-dependently lowered serum concentrations of insulin and leptin, but increased those of adiponectin. Lipoic acid appeared to reduce hepatic lipogenesis and hence decreases serum and liver lipid levels. Alterations in serum concentrations of insulin and (or) adiponectin may trigger this consequence" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of alpha-lipoic acid on symptoms and skin blood flow in diabetic neuropathy - Diabet Med. 2007 May 8 - "study suggests that alpha-lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant, improves symptoms of diabetic neuropathy"
  • Oral Treatment With {alpha}-Lipoic Acid Improves Symptomatic Diabetic Polyneuropathy: The SYDNEY 2 trial - Diabetes Care. 2006 Nov;29(11):2365-2370 - "Oral treatment with ALA for 5 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms and deficits in patients with DSP. An oral dose of 600 mg once daily appears to provide the optimum risk-to-benefit ratio"
  • Treatment for diabetic mononeuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid - Int J Clin Pract. 2005 Jun;59(6):645-50 - "alpha-lipoic acid appears to be an effective drug in the treatment for not only peripheral and autonomic diabetic neuropathy, but also diabetic mononeuropathy of the cranial nerves leading to full recovery of the patients" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon alpha lipoic acid products.
  • Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-2361 - "Electron microscopic studies in the hippocampus showed that ALCAR and/or LA reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural decay"
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