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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending
10/12/11. You should consult your doctor if you are taking any
just as good as drugs at preventing migraines, Swedish study suggests -
Science Daily, 10/10/11 - "Published in the journal
Cephalalgia, the study involved 91 migraine
patients, a third of whom were asked to exercise for 40 minutes three times a
week under the supervision of a physiotherapist, with another third doing
relaxation exercises, and the final third given topiramate. The study lasted for
a total of three months ... the number of migraines fell in all three groups.
Interestingly, there was no difference in the preventative effect between the
cannabis increases risk of depression in the case of genetic vulnerability,
study finds - Science Daily, 10/10/11 - "Young
people who are genetically vulnerable to depression should be extra careful
about using cannabis: smoking cannabis leads
to an increased risk of developing depressive symptoms ... Two-thirds of the
population have the gene variant that makes one sensitive to depression ...
Besides worse performances at school, the use of cannabis also increases the
risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis"
Hormone oxytocin flies off shelves as a his-and-hers sex drug - The Daily,
10/10/11 - "“Absolutely, it’s worth a try,” Eric
Braverman, a New York physician who recommends an
oxytocin supplement to patients struggling in relationships, told The Daily.
“And we know that people produce less oxytocin as they get older, so for them to
stay intimate, a supplement can be a godsend.” ... But while some couples swear
by the supplement, experts caution that there’s not enough evidence to show that
synthetic oxytocin — the kind sold over-the-counter, as opposed to that produced
by the human body or used by hospitals to induce labor — can actually impact the
Click here to purchase Oxytocin Factor or see
Oxytocin 6x5iu tablets at International Antiaging Systems. - Related
Task Force to Men: Don't Get PSA Test - WebMD, 10/7/11 -
"Rising PSA levels are an early sign of
prostate cancer, but the test gives a false
cancer signal up to 80% of the time. Moreover, not all PSA-detected prostate
cancers are dangerous ... The common perception that PSA-based early detection
of prostate cancer saves lives is simply not supported by the scientific
evidence ... The statement already is drawing harsh criticism, particularly from
the American Urological Association ... It is our feeling that, when interpreted
appropriately, the PSA test provides important information ... The task force is
oversimplifying a complex series of [clinical trial] results ... I think there
is real evidence of benefit for PSA screening. Death rates from prostate cancer
have gone down … It is hard for me to believe all that is due to better
Chemical makers say BPA no longer used in bottles - USA Today, 10/7/11 -
"Makers of the controversial chemical
bisphenol-A have asked federal regulators to phase
out rules that allow its use in baby bottles and sippy cups, saying those
products haven't contained the plastic-hardening ingredient for two years"
- Note: I don't know why they don't just faze it out all together. I
bought some plastic disposable food containers for touch-up painting around the
house and even those said "BPA free".
Fuel to the Fire or Flame Retardant? More on ARB Use/Cancer - Medscape,
angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) or ACE inhibitors is not associated
with a significantly increased risk of cancer, according to the latest
meta-analysis to address this controversy . The findings add yet another
wrinkle in a series of published studies attempting to address the cancer issue
with the antihypertensive medications, with some studies suggesting there is a
cancer link while others finding none ... How Did the Controversy Begin? ..."
Tadalafil Approved for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Medscape, 10/6/11 -
"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today
approved tadalafil (Cialis, Eli
Lilly), a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, to also treat the signs and
symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
as well as a combination of BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED) when the
conditions coincide ... Tadalafil joins a long list of other FDA-approved drugs
for BPH symptoms: finasteride (Proscar), dutasteride (Avodart), dusasteride plus
tamsulosin (Jalyn), and alpha-blockers terazosin (Hytrin), doxazosin (Cardura),
tamsulosin (Flomax), alfuzosin (Uroxatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo)"
Leucine supplements boost muscle synthesis by 33% during exercise - Nutra
USA, 10/6/11 - "In contrast with resistance
exercise, sustained endurance exercise is
mainly catabolic, yielding simultaneous reductions in muscle protein synthesis
and plasma leucine concentrations during
exercise, which may be attributed to the metabolic demand for branched chain
amino acids in exercising skeletal muscle ... the leucine-enriched beverage was
associated with a 33% increase in muscle protein synthesis ... Our findings
indicate that increasing the leucine content of protein supplements provided for
those populations susceptible to muscle loss, including proteolytic
conditions—such as cachexia, sarcopenia, and calorie deprivation—may warrant
further exploration" - [Abstract]
leucine products at Amazon.com.
Biologists find 'surprising' number of unknown viruses in sewage - Science
Daily, 10/6/11 - "What was surprising was that the vast
majority of viruses we found were viruses that had not been detected or
Pioglitazone: A Key
Component for Type 2 Diabetes Therapy - Medscape, 10/5/11 -
"Even in patients who do not already have known CV
disease there is an increasingly strong case developing in favour of using the
combination of metformin,
pioglitazone and a GLP-1 agonist in the modern management of type 2
diabetes. This case is argued by Professor Ralph DeFronzo who, in print
as well as in a webcast, describes an 'ominous octet' of factors combining
in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (figure 4). With regard to these eight
factors he points out that sulphonylureas only improve insulin secretion and
that even this effect is transient. By contrast, GLP-1 agonists impact on five
members of the ominous octet, pioglitazone on four and metformin on two, and
that the effects of these agents are complementary and some at least are
sustained. As a potent insulin sensitiser, pioglitazone reduces hepatic glucose
output and increases glucose uptake in muscle. It improves and preserves
pancreatic beta-cell function and therefore insulin secretion and it is also a
potent inhibitor of lipolysis. At the level of the liver, metformin is a potent
insulin sensitiser reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and in muscle it provides an
additive effect to pioglitazone in promoting glucose uptake. GLP-1 analogues
increase the incretin effect, increasing insulin secretion, reducing glucagon
secretion and hepatic glucose output. Finally GLP-1 agonists act on the brain
reducing appetite and promoting weight loss. DeFronzo[42,43] reminds us that
even at the stage of impaired glucose tolerance, individuals have lost >80% of
their beta-cell function. Therefore he argues that the modern paradigm for the
management of type 2 diabetes would involve intensive management at the earliest
stages using metformin, pioglitazone and GLP-1 agonists in combination with a
view to achieving a target HbA1C <6%.[42,43] It is worth noting in particular
that the combination of these agents does not require expensive home glucose
monitoring and these agents are not associated with a risk of hypoglycaemia"
mechanism blocks inflammation generated by oxidative stress - Science Daily,
10/5/11 - "Conditions like atherosclerosis and
age-related macular degeneration (AMD) -- the most common cause of blindness
among the elderly in western societies -- are strongly linked to increased
oxidative stress, the process in which proteins, lipids and DNA damaged by
oxygen free radicals and related cellular waste accumulate, prompting an
inflammatory response from the body's innate
immune system that results in chronic disease ... when lipids (fats) in cell
membranes degrade through oxidative stress, they produce a number of reactive
products, including a compound called malondialdehyde (MDA), which in turn
modifies other molecules to create novel oxidation-specific epitopes, the part
of antigens that draws the attention and inflammatory response of the innate
More Evidence for Lowering LDL to Below 70 - Medscape, 10/4/11 -
"They compared outcomes among 1054 patients with
LDL levels below 70 mg/dL at the time of
their MI as to whether they were discharged on a statin or not ... Results
showed that the rate of major adverse cardiac events at one year was
significantly lower in those patients who were taking a
statin, with the benefit mainly driven by the
reduction of cardiac death and coronary revascularization ... Dr Roger
Blumenthal (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD) suggested the study
supported the pleiotropic effects of statins and the idea that the ideal LDL-C
is probably closer to 50 than to 70 mg/dL ... levels of LDL below 70 are on a
par with those of nonhuman primates who don't develop atherosclerosis, adding
that, like these primates, humans were designed to be vegetarians ...
Chimpanzees don't eat meat; they eat very little fat. They have LDL levels in
the range of 40 to 70, and they don't get atherosclerosis. Maybe we wouldn't get
atherosclerosis either if we had levels this low"
Abstracts from this week's
Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics
plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here
for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):
low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on arterial stiffening and left
ventricular diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension - J Clin
Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011 Oct;13(10):710-5 - "In
univariate regression analysis, HDL cholesterol was
inversely associated with arterial stiffness parameter and E/Em (r=-0.23 and
r=-0.27, respectively, P<.01). The association of HDL cholesterol with
arterial stiffness and LV diastolic
function was observed in both men and women. Triglycerides were weakly
correlated with arterial stiffness parameter and E/Em, while low-density
lipoprotein and total cholesterol were not. In multiple regression analysis,
only low HDL cholesterol was found as an independent predictor for both arterial
stiffness and LV diastolic dysfunction. Enhanced arterial stiffness is
associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Low HDL cholesterol may lead to the
deterioration of both arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function in patients
with essential hypertension"
Calcium Levels and Hypertension Among US Adults - J Clin Hypertens
(Greenwich). 2011 Oct;13(10):716-21 - "Elevated serum
total calcium levels were positively associated
with hypertension, independent of potential
confounders including C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate,
serum albumin, 25(OH)D, and phosphorous. Compared with the lowest quartile of
serum total calcium (referent category), the multivariable odds ratio (95%
confidence interval) of hypertension was 1.49 (1.15-1.93) for the highest
quartile (P=.005). This association persisted in subgroup analyses stratified by
sex, age, and race-ethnicity. In contrast, serum ionized calcium levels were not
associated with hypertension. Higher serum total calcium levels are positively
associated with hypertension in a representative sample of US adults"
Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Less Loss of Lean Body Mass in Older Men
- J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Oct 5 - "In weight
losers, higher testosterone was associated
with less decline in timed chair stands. Estradiol was not related to body
composition or physical function changes. Higher SHBG was associated with less
loss of appendicular lean mass and grip strength.Conclusions: Higher endogenous
testosterone is associated with reduced loss of lean mass and lower extremity
function in older men losing weight. Endogenous testosterone may contribute to
Propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and niacin in sexual medicine: a nutraceutical
approach for erectile dysfunction - Andrologia. 2011 Oct 4 -
"In a group of 54 unselected men (35-75 years), consecutively presenting to our
ED clinic and naive to other
ED treatments, we carried out a single-blind,
one-arm study to evaluate the effects of a 3-month supplementation with
on their sexual performance ... Analyses on GAQs revealed that treatment
improved erections in 40% of cases, with a partial response occurring in up to
77% of enrolled subjects. These preliminary findings indicate that the
favourable cardiovascular effects of nutraceuticals might also reflect on male
sexual function with possible implication in the treatment and prevention of ED.
This study documents a considerable patients' interest toward nutritional
supplementation - as first-line or adjunctive treatment to PDE5 inhibitors -
that goes beyond the measurable increment in penile rigidity" - See
propionyl-l-carnitine products at Amazon.com,
niacin at Amazon.com
L-arginine products at Amazon.com.
Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":
- Steve Jobs' shirts - Note:
If you click on the shirt it brings you to
Traveler Cashmere Turtleneck Sweater,
at Amazon.com. The price is $295 and they are out of black. Or go cheap
and comfortable with a
long sleeve black t-shirt at LLBean for $19.95, shipping included.
Health Focus (Acetyl-L-Carnitine):
News & Research:
used supplement may improve recovery from spinal cord injuries - Science
Daily, 9/28/11 - "in experimental models, severe
spinal cord injury can be treated effectively by administering the
supplement acetyl-L-carnitine or ALC, a derivative of essential amino acids
that can generate metabolic energy, soon after injury ... following spinal
cord injury, the mitochondria, or energy-generation components of cells, are
overwhelmed by chemical stresses and lose the ability to produce energy in
the form of the compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). [1,2] This leads to
cell death at the injury site and, ultimately, paralysis of the body below
the injury level ... ALC can preserve the vitality of mitochondria by acting
as an alternative biofuel providing energy to cells, thus bypassing damaged
mitochondrial enzymes and promoting neuroprotection"
Effect of Oral
Acetyl L-Carnitine Arginate on Biomarkers in Pre-Diabetics - Medscape,
10/28/09 - "3 g.day−1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 +/- 3 yrs)
or placebo (n = 15; 35 +/- 3 yrs) in a double-blind design, to consume for
eight weeks ... slight improvements in glucose (109 +/- 5 to 103 +/- 5
mg.dL−1), HbA1c (6.6 +/- 1.1 to 6.2 +/- 1.2%), and HOMA-IR (3.3 +/- 1.3 to
2.9 +/- 1.2) ... slight improvement in glucose metabolism, as evidenced by
minor decreases in blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c (which may have been
more pronounced with longer treatment, as HbA1c has a half-life equal to
approximately 12 weeks"
propionyl-l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
Protecting the Brain from Aging? - Dr. Weil, 6/22/09 -
"Dr. Khalsa is president and medical director of the
Alzheimer's Prevention Foundation International and author of the book "The
Better Memory Kit" to be published later this year. He tells me that
supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine can increase energy in the mitochondria, the
power plants of all cells, and thereby helps generally boost physical and
mental energy. He describes acetyl-L-carnitine as a superior antioxidant
that promotes the production in cells of glutathione, perhaps our most
potent free radical scavenger. If you decide to try it, Dr. Khalsa
recommends taking 500 to 1,500 mg per day along with 100 mg of
L-Acetylcarnitine Curbs ADHD Associated With Fragile X Syndrome -
Medscape, 3/12/08 -
"L-acetylcarnitine (LAC) may be considered an
alternative to stimulants for the treatment of attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with fragile X syndrome, based on
results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study"
Lipoic acid and carnitine combo show diabetes potential - Nutra USA,
2/18/08 - [Abstract]
- "the combination of LA and LCAR increased the
mass, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial DNA expression, and fatty acid
oxidation in the fat cells ... However, the treatments with LA or ALC alone
at the same concentrations showed little effect on mitochondrial function
and biogenesis ... Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine have become very hot
after our reports on the complementary effects on improving memory and
ambulatory activity in old rats"
Integrative Approaches to Dementia - Medscape, 7/5/05 -
"There have been several controlled clinical trials
suggesting that ALc slows the progression of AD"
Jarrow Formulas’, Inc. Introduces ALCA 500(TM) (Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginate
Dihydrochloride) - NPI Center, 3/8/05 -
"Acetyl-l-carnitine arginate (ALCA) represents an
advancement in the carnitine and arginine fields as this new dietary
supplement offers potential benefits in affecting levels of nitric oxide
over and above the traditional benefits of carnitine" - See
acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
- Common Nutrient
May Ease Diabetic Pain - WebMD, 1/6/05 - "1,000
milligrams three times a day of acetyl-L-carnitine was effective in
relieving pain caused by nerve damage associated with the condition"
Carnitine May Be Helpful in Diabetic Neuropathy
- Medscape, 1/3/05 - "Pain as the most bothersome
symptom significantly improved with ALC"
New uses for carnitine - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 11/04 -
is central to the formation of energy from fat, the heart is therefore
dependent on L-carnitine for most of its energy production ... L-Carnipure
carries long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria where they are oxidised
for energy. Its ability to generate energy from fat makes carnitine useful
as part of a weight management program ... L-carnitine plus its metabolite,
acetyl-L-carnitine, can treat symptoms of male ageing, including sexual
dysfunction, depressed mood and fatigue"
- Carnitine Improves
Symptoms of Male Aging - Medscape, 4/14/04 -
is more active than testosterone for improving symptoms of male aging such
as sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue ... In this trial, 120
patients were randomized to receive testosterone undecanoate 160 mg/day,
propionyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day plus acetyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day, or placebo
for six months" - [Abstract]
acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
Do Anti-aging Supplements Really Work? - Life Extension Magazine, 6/02 -
"The National Academy of Sciences has published
three new reports showing that aging may be partially reversible with
currently available supplements"
The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 -
"Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the
rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension
Foundation and its products in his newest book,
Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at
the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ...
DHA ... NADH ...
Alpah Lipoic Acid
... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes
lycopene, gamma tocopherol,
carnosine, glutathione, DMAE,
Huperzine A, probiotics,
IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and
grape skin/seed extracts"
Sustain the Brain - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 -
"By enhancing membrane stability, energy production,
and neurotransmission, ALC may improve mental function. In addition, it may
also have anti-inflammatory effects that reduce free radical generation. . .
ALC's ability to bind cortisol and increase
nerve growth factor production within the hippocampal region may explain its
positive effects on neurons."
Booster? - WebMD, 1/1/01
Can L-carnitine help reverse Alzheimer's disease? - Nutrition Science
The Anti-Aging Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine - Life Extension Magazine,
5/00 - "When acetyl-L-carnitine was administered,
their heart rates became almost completely restored to the metabolic
function level of young control rats . . . acetyl-L-carnitine is critical to
youthful cellular function in the brain, heart, liver, peripheral nerve and
immune system. Supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine becomes an even
greater consideration when we realize the potential antiaging effects this
amino acid may produce when taken in combination with
alpha lipoic acid"
Staying Young Forever, Putting new research findings into practice -
Life Extension Foundation, 12/99 - "acetyl
l-carnitine significantly reversed age-associated mitochondrial decay. It
increased cellular respiration, membrane potential and cardiolipin levels"
- Lower AGE
with Acetyl L-Carnitine - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/99 -
"Diabetics and others who become susceptible to high levels of glucose in
blood serum as they age suffer from the formation of deleterious hybrid
protein-sugar complexes known as advanced glycation end products (AGE) ...
ALC decreased the glycation by 42%"
Anti-Cortisols May Offer New Hope For Retinitis Pigmentosa - Doctor's
Guide, 11/17/97 - "According to Sapse, RP can be
treated initially with a cocktail of anti-cortisol
nutritional compounds including vitamin A, zinc, ginkgo biloba and
acetyl-L-carnitine . . ."
Life Extension Drugs - Life Extension Magazine, 9/95
Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplements Slow Progression of Alzheimer's Disease
-The Nutrition Reporter, '95
acetyl-L-carnitine therapy reduces fatigue in overt hepatic encephalopathy: a
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011
Feb 10 - "Fatigue is frequently reported in hepatic
encephalopathy (HE) and may be related to hyperammonemia. Acetyl-l-carnitine
(ALC) offers neuroprotective benefits and improves mitochondrial energetics and
function ... At the end of the study period, the ALC-treated patients in the HE1
group showed significantly better improvement than did the placebo group in
mental fatigue score (-1.7 compared with -0.3; P < 0.05), the fatigue severity
scale (-6.4 compared with 2.3; P < 0.001), 7-d Physical Activity Recall
questionnaire score (17.1 compared with -2.5; P < 0.001), and Short Physical
Performance Battery (2.1 compared with 0.2; P < 0.001); the HE2 group showed
significantly better improvement in the fatigue severity scale (-8.1 compared
with -5.1; P < 0.001) and 6-min walk test (19.9 compared with 2.3; P < 0.05).
Significant decreases in NH(4)(+) were observed in both groups (P < 0.001)"
encephalopathy - NIH - "Hepatic
encephalopathy is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the
liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood"
of acetyl-L-carnitine and oxfenicine on aorta stiffness in diabetic rats
- Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 Jul 29 - "Oxfenicine, but
not acetyl-L-carnitine, increased total peripheral resistance in diabetes,
which paralleled its elevation in plasma levels of free fatty acids. By
contrast, acetyl-L-carnitine, but not oxfenicine, resulted in a significant
increase in wave transit time and a decrease in wave reflection factor,
suggesting that acetyl-L-carnitine may attenuate the diabetes-induced
deterioration in systolic loading condition for the left ventricle. This was
in parallel with its lowering of MDA/TBARS content in plasma and aortic
walls in diabetes. Acetyl-L-carnitine therapy also prevented the
diabetes-related cardiac hypertrophy, as evidenced by the reduction in ratio
of the left ventricular weight to body weight. Conclusion
Acetyl-L-carnitine, but not oxfenicine, attenuates aortic stiffening and
cardiac hypertrophy, possibly through its decrease of lipid
oxidation-derived MDA/TBARS in the rats with insulin deficiency"
Ameliorating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased
Cardiovascular Risk. Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy -
Hypertension. 2009 Jul 20 - "glucose disposal rate
(GDR) ... Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144.0+/-13.6 to 135.1+/-8.4
mm Hg and from 130.8+/-12.4 to 123.8+/-10.8 mm Hg in the lower and higher
GDR groups, respectively (P<0.05 for both; P<0.001 overall) and
progressively recovered toward baseline over 8 weeks posttreatment. Total
and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends.
Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher
GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients.
Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin
resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects
at increased cardiovascular risk"
of a Vitamin/Nutriceutical Formulation for Early-stage Alzheimer's Disease:
A 1-Year, Open-Label Pilot Study With an 16-Month Caregiver Extension -
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2008 Dec 1 - "We
examined the efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation (folate,
vitamin B6, alpha-tocopherol, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, and
acetyl-L-carnitine) in a 12-month, open-label trial with 14
community-dwelling individuals with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.
Participants improved in the Dementia Rating Scale and Clock-drawing tests
(Clox 1 and 2). Family caregivers reported improvement in multiple domains
of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and maintenance of performance in
the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADL).
Sustained performance was reported by caregivers for those participants who
continued in an 16-month extension. Performance on the NPI was equivalent to
published findings at 3 to 6 months for donepezil and exceeded that of
galantamine and their historical placebos. Participants demonstrated
superior performance for more than 12 months in NPI and ADL versus those
receiving naproxen and rofecoxib or their placebo group. This formulation
holds promise for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease prior to
and/or as a supplement for pharmacological approaches"
Acetyl-L-Carnitine in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
(November) - Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Oct 21 -
"acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
(DPN) ... Data on treatment of DPN with ALC support its use. It should be
recommended to patients early in the disease process to provide maximal
benefit. Further studies should be conducted to determine the effectiveness
of ALC in the treatment and prevention of the worsening symptoms of DPN"
R-alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L: -carnitine complementarily promote
mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes - Diabetologia.
2008 Jan;51(1):165-74 - "Treatments with the
combination of LA and ALC at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 mumol/l for 24
h significantly increased mitochondrial mass, expression of mitochondrial
DNA, mitochondrial complexes, oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation in
3T3L1 adipocytes. These changes were accompanied by an increase in
expression of Pparg, Ppara and Cpt1a mRNA, as well as increased expression
of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1
alpha (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear
respiratory factors 1 and 2 (Nrf1 and Nrf2). However, the treatments with LA
or ALC alone at the same concentrations showed little effect on
mitochondrial function and biogenesis" - See
alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com
acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
Effect of L-carnitine and/or L-acetyl-carnitine in nutrition treatment for
male infertility: a systematic review - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16
Suppl:383-90 - "the administration of LC and/or LAC
may be effective in improving pregnancy rate and sperm kinetic features in
patients affected by male infertility"
Acetyl-L-Carnitine Improves Pain, Nerve Regeneration, and Vibratory
Perception in Patients With Chronic Diabetic Neuropathy: An analysis of two
randomized placebo-controlled trials
- Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan;28(1):89-94 -
"ALC treatment is efficacious in alleviating
symptoms, particularly pain, and improves nerve fiber regeneration and
vibration perception in patients with established diabetic neuropathy"
Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual
dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging
- Urology. 2004 Apr;63(4):641-6 - "Carnitines proved
significantly more active than testosterone in improving nocturnal penile
tumescence and International Index of Erectile Function score. Testosterone
significantly increased the prostate volume and free and total testosterone
levels and significantly lowered serum luteinizing hormone; carnitines did
Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and
RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or
R-alpha -lipoic acid
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-2361 -
"Electron microscopic studies in the hippocampus
showed that ALCAR and/or LA reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural
Mitochondrial decay in aging. Reversal through supplementation of
acetyl-L-carnitine and N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenyl-nitrone - Ann N Y Acad
Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:214-23 - "ALCAR supplementation
(1 month) resulted in significant increases in cellular respiration,
mitochondrial membrane potential, and cardiolipin values"
Acetyl L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer's
disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the
trilinear approach - Int Psychogeriatr. 1998 Jun;10(2):193-203 -
"ALC slows the progression of Alzheimer's disease in younger subjects, and
the use of the trilinear approach to estimate the average rate of change may
prove valuable in pharmacological trials"
Acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer disease: a short-term study on CSF
neurotransmitters and neuropeptides - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1995
Fall;9(3):128-31 - "beta-endorphins significantly
decreased after treatment; plasma cortisol levels matched this reduction.
Since both CSF beta-endorphins and plasma cortisol decreased, one possible
explanation is that ALCAR reduced the AD-dependent
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hyperactivity"
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