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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 8/3/11.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium Intakes and Stroke Risk - Medscape, 8/2/11 - "In conclusion, findings from this prospective cohort study of women suggest that potassium and magnesium intakes are inversely associated with risk of cerebral infarction among women with hypertension. We observed no protective effect of calcium intake on stroke risk"

Some exercise is better than none: More is better to reduce heart disease risk - Science Daily, 8/1/11 - "150 minutes of exercise per week is beneficial, 300 minutes per week will give even more benefits ... researchers examined more than 3,000 studies of physical activity and heart disease, and included 33 of them in their analysis. Among those, nine measured leisure activity quantitatively"

DHA During Pregnancy May Cut Infant Colds - WebMD, 8/1/11 - "researchers compared the effects of 400 milligrams per day of DHA (via an algae-based supplement) or a placebo started from weeks 18 to 22 of pregnancy and continued through childbirth on infant wellness in a group of 851 Mexican women ... The results showed that infants whose mothers took DHA supplements had fewer colds at age 1 month and shorter duration of cold symptoms at 1, 3, and 6 months of age ... at age 1 month, the infants in the DHA group had a shorter duration of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, although they had a longer duration of rash. At age 3 months, the infants in the DHA group spent 14% less time ill, and by 6 months of age these infants had experienced shorter durations of fever, nasal secretion, difficulty breathing, and rash but a longer duration of vomiting" - [Science  Daily] - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Colon cleansing has no benefit but many side effects including vomiting and death, doctors say - Science Daily, 8/1/11 - "while these reports show little evidence of benefit, there is an abundance of studies noting side effects following the use of cleansing products including cramping, bloating, nausea, vomiting, electrolyte imbalance and renal failure ... Some herbal preparations have also been associated with aplastic anemia and liver toxicity ... organizations such as the National Board for Colon Hydrotherapy and others who promote colon cleansing require hygienists to have little more than a high school diploma"

Masticating 40 times per bite is key to weight loss, study says - The Daily, 7/31/11 - "People who chewed 40 times ended up consuming 12 percent fewer calories, according to researchers at Harbin Medical University in China ... If the average person cut his calorie intake by 12 percent, he would lose nearly 25 pounds in one year ... Chewing more was associated with lower blood levels of ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates appetite, as well as higher levels of CCK, a hormone believed to reduce appetite"

Which Is Better: Vitamin D2 or D3? - Medscape, 7/29/11 - "In conclusion, ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) are not bioequivalent and should not be considered interchangeable. Although few head-to-head trials exist, based on pharmacokinetic studies and limited clinical evidence, cholecalciferol is preferred over ergocalciferol. Because of its shorter half-life and decreased potency, this is especially relevant in the setting of severe deficiency, where high-dose ergocalciferol is often only given once weekly. Health professionals should encourage use of cholecalciferol over ergocalciferol in all patients without severe renal failure, either as a general supplement or as a treatment for vitamin D deficiency"

Low Vitamin D Linked to Atherosclerosis, Study Finds - Medscape, 7/28/11 - "They found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D was inversely associated with both intima-media thickness (beta, -0.01 per 10-ng/mL increase; P = .05) and maximal carotid plaque thickness (beta, -0.10 per 10-ng/mL increase; P = .03) ... In a model containing traditional cardiac risk factors and indices of mineral metabolism, 25-hydroxyvitamin D accounted for 13% of the variance in both intima-media thickness and maximal carotid plaque thickness" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Liver Cancer Linked to Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 7/28/11 - "hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) ... metabolic syndrome was significantly more common in individuals who developed HCC (37.1%) and ICC (29.7%) than in a comparison group (17.1%; P < .0001). Even after multiple logistic regression analyses, metabolic syndrome remained significantly associated with an increased risk for both HCC (odds ratio, 2.13; P < .0001) and ICC (odds ratio, 1.56; P < .0001)"

Increased muscle mass may lower risk of pre-diabetes: Study shows building muscle can lower person's risk of insulin resistance - Science Daily, 7/28/11 - "the greater an individual's total muscle mass, the lower the person's risk of having insulin resistance, the major precursor of type 2 diabetes"

Antioxidants of growing interest to address infertility, erectile dysfunction - Science Daily, 7/28/11 - "A growing body of evidence suggests that antioxidants may have significant value in addressing infertility issues in both women and men, including erectile dysfunction, and researchers say that large, specific clinical studies are merited to determine how much they could help ... Some commonly used antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, could help, Hagen said. But others, such as lipoic acid, are a little more cutting-edge and set up a biological chain reaction that has a more sustained impact on vasomotor function and health ... Polyphenols, the phytochemicals that often give vegetables their intense color and are also found in chocolate and tea, are also of considerable interest"

First measurements of harmful haloacetic acids in urine of swimmers and pool workers - Science Daily, 7/27/11 - "elevated levels of HAAs in municipal drinking water supplies may be linked to birth defects and a higher incidence of some cancers ... Gallego and Cardador measured HAA levels in the urine of 49 volunteers who swam in or worked around an indoor and outdoor pool. "The results showed that HAAs appeared 20-30 minutes after exposure and were eliminated [from the body] within three hours," they note. Over 90 percent of the exposures probably occurred as a result of swallowing pool water. Far fewer HAAs were inhaled or taken in through the skin. Children were more likely than adults to have a high concentration of HAAs after swimming and swimmers accumulated HAAs almost four times as fast as people working around the pool"

How Exercise Can Keep the Brain Fit - NYTimes.com, 7/27/11 - "While the wholly sedentary volunteers, and there were many of these, scored significantly worse over the years on tests of cognitive function, the most active group showed little decline. About 90 percent of those with the greatest daily energy expenditure could think and remember just about as well, year after year ... The same message emerged from another study published last week in the same journal. In it, women, most in their 70s, with vascular disease or multiple risk factors for developing that condition completed cognitive tests and surveys of their activities over a period of five years. Again, they were not spry. There were no marathon runners among them. The most active walked. But there was “a decreasing rate of cognitive decline” among the active group, the authors wrote. Their ability to remember and think did still diminish, but not as rapidly as among the sedentary ...scientists from the Aging, Mobility and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory at the University of British Columbia and other institutions have shown, for the first time, that light-duty weight training changes how well older women think and how blood flows within their brains. After 12 months of lifting weights twice a week, the women performed significantly better on tests of mental processing ability than a control group of women who completed a balance and toning program, while functional M.R.I. scans showed that portions of the brain that control such thinking were considerably more active in the weight trainers"

Zinc lozenges may shorten common cold duration, Finnish research suggests - Science Daily, 7/26/11 - "Dr. Harri Hemila of the University of Helsinki, Finland, carried out a meta-analysis of all the placebo-controlled trials that have examined the effect of zinc lozenges on natural common cold infections. Of the 13 trial comparisons identified, five used a total daily zinc dose of less than 75 mg and uniformly those five comparisons found no effect of zinc. Three trials used zinc acetate in daily doses of over 75 mg, with the average indicating a 42% reduction in the duration of colds. Five trials used zinc salts other than acetate in daily doses of over 75 mg, with the average indicating a 20% decrease in the duration of colds" - The middle of July is a great time to release a cold study if you live in Australia of South Africa.

Vitamin D relieves joint, muscle pain for breast cancer patients - Science Daily, 7/26/11 - "Rastelli's group recruited 60 patients who reported pain and discomfort associated with anastrozole, one of three FDA-approved aromatase inhibitors. The patients they studied also had low vitamin D levels. Half the group was randomly assigned to receive the recommended daily dose of vitamin D (400 international units) plus a 50,000-unit vitamin D capsule once a week. The other half received the daily dose of 400 units of vitamin D plus a weekly placebo. All subjects received 1,000 milligrams of calcium daily throughout the study ... patients receiving high-dose vitamin D every week reported significantly less musculoskeletal pain and also were less likely to experience pain that interfered with daily living" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Half of men would dump woman who got fat - MSNBC, 7/26/11 - "Nearly half of men questioned in the poll of 70,000 people said they would ditch a partner who gained weight, compared to only 20 percent of women" - That's not nice.  I was trying to think of what I would have done but it seems like everyone I've dated has either stayed the same or lost weight.

Humans Alone See Brains Shrink With Age, Researchers Find - WSJ, 7/26/11 - "they found the human brains lost significant volume over time, while the chimpanzees didn't ... Stress can affect brain size. So can depression, research shows. Diet can be a factor, too. More broadly, though, humanity's unusual shrinking brain just may be the price our species pays for living so much longer than other primates ... During those extra decades of life, natural cell-repair mechanisms may wear out and neural circuits wither, the researchers said. As the brain normally ages, it acquires the neural equivalent of sore knees and stiff fingers. Natural grooves in the brain widen. Healthy swellings subside. And tangles of damaged neurons become dense thickets of dysfunctional synapses"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Dietary glycemic index and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men - Metabolism. 2011 Jul 29 - "During the study, 133 participants developed diabetes. Age- and body mass index-adjusted hazard ratios across the GI quintiles were 1.00 (reference), 1.62, 1.50, 1.68, and 1.80; and those of GL were 1.00 (reference), 1.07, 1.48, 0.95, and 0.98. The hazard ratio for the highest GI quintile was significantly greater than that for the lowest quintile. The influence of GI was more pronounced in the lowest insulin resistance subgroups. GI and pancreatic B-cell function were independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus; participants with low B-cell function and the highest tertile of GI had the highest risk of diabetes. Dietary GI is associated with the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men. GI and B-cell function were independently associated with incidence of diabetes"

The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Aug;111(8):1173-81 - "Upon meta-analysis, grape seed extract significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference -1.54 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -2.85 to -0.22, P=0.02]), and heart rate (weighted mean difference -1.42 bpm (95% confidence interval -2.50 to -0.34, P=0.01]). No significant effect on diastolic blood pressure, lipid levels, or CRP was found. No statistical heterogeneity was observed for any analysis (I(2)<39% for all). Egger's weighted regression statistic suggested low likelihood of publication bias in all analysis (P>0.05 for all), except for the effect on diastolic blood pressure (P=0.046). Based on the currently available literature, grape seed extract appears to significantly lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no effect on lipid or CRP levels" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.

Association of Kidney Function, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Circulating Markers of Mineral and Bone Disorders in CKD - Am J Kidney Dis. 2011 Jul 29 - "25(OH)D deficiency is related independently to impaired mGFR. Both mGFR decrease and 25(OH)D deficiency are associated with abnormal levels of circulating MBD biomarkers" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

S-allylmercaptocysteine effectively inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions - Cancer Lett. 2011 Jun 30 - "S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), one of the water-soluble organosulfur garlic derivatives, has been demonstrated as a suppressive agent against some tumors. The effects of SAMC on the proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) under in vitro and in vivo conditions were evaluated here. The viabilities and migrations of CRC cells SW480, SW620, Caco-2 treated with SAMC were measured by MTT, scratch-wound, and transwell assays. The in vivo anticancer effect of SAMC against luciferase-expressing SW620 xenografts in mice was determined by bioluminescence imaging and histopathology observation. The apoptosis of SAMC-treated CRC cells was examined by Western blotting. The results demonstrate that SAMC could effectively suppress the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. The anticancer effect of SAMC was related to the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis as well as necrosis of cancer cells. Oral administration of SAMC in the quantity/concentration used had no apparent toxic side effect on the vital organs of the experimental mice. Taken together, the proliferation and metastasis of CRC cells can be significantly suppressed by SAMC treatment under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. SAMC may thus be a promising candidate for CRC chemotherapy" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.

Luteolin induces apoptosis in multidrug resistant cancer cells without affecting the drug transporter function: involvement of cell line-specific apoptotic mechanisms - Int J Cancer. 2011 Jul 25 - "These results suggest that luteolin possesses therapeutic potential to control the proliferation of MDR cancers without affecting the physiological function of drug transporters in the body tissues"

Repeated and long-term treatment with physiological concentrations of resveratrol promotes NO production in vascular endothelial cells - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jul 27:1-7 - "Repeated treatment with resveratrol for 5 d resulted in an increase in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein content and NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in a concentration-dependent manner. A significant increase in functional eNOS protein content was observed with resveratrol, even at 50 nm. In contrast, eNOS phosphorylation was not stimulated and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was not detected after resveratrol treatment. Both eNOS protein and mRNA expression were promoted by 50 nm-resveratrol in a time-dependent manner. Increased eNOS mRNA expression in response to resveratrol was not decreased by an oestrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182780, a PPARα inhibitor MK886 or a sirtuin inhibitor Salermide. However, a combination of ICI182780 and MK886 significantly inhibited resveratrol-induced eNOS mRNA expression. Salermide had no effect even in the presence of ICI182780 or MK886. These results demonstrate that resveratrol within the physiological range increases eNOS mRNA and protein expression through ER and PPARα activation, thereby promoting NO production in endothelial cells. eNOS induction might result from the accumulative effect of nanomolar concentrations of resveratrol. The present study results can account in part for the observation that cardiovascular benefits of red wine are experienced with routine consumption, but not with acute consumption" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Is lost lean mass from intentional weight loss recovered during weight regain in postmenopausal women? - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 27 - "All body mass and composition variables were lower immediately after weight loss than at baseline (all P < 0.05). More fat than lean mass was lost with weight loss, which resulted in body-composition changes favoring a lower percentage of body fat and a higher lean-to-fat mass ratio (P < 0.001). Considerable interindividual variability in weight regain was noted (CV = 1.07). In women who regained ≥2 kg body weight, a decreasing trend in the lean-to-fat mass ratio was observed, which indicated greater fat mass accretion than lean mass accretion (P < 0.001). Specifically, for every 1 kg fat lost during the weight-loss intervention, 0.26 kg lean tissue was lost; for every 1 kg fat regained over the following year, only 0.12 kg lean tissue was regained ... Although not all postmenopausal women who intentionally lose weight will regain it within 1 y, the data suggest that fat mass is regained to a greater degree than is lean mass in those who do experience some weight regain"

Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 27 - "Compared with younger control subjects, elderly subjects had markedly lower RBC concentrations of glycine (486.7 +/- 28.3 compared with 218.0 +/- 23.7 μmol/L; P < 0.01), cysteine (26.2 +/- 1.4 compared with 19.8 +/- 1.3 μmol/L; P < 0.05), and glutathione (2.08 +/- 0.12 compared with 1.12 +/- 0.18 mmol/L RBCs; P < 0.05); lower glutathione fractional (83.14 +/- 6.43% compared with 45.80 +/- 5.69%/d; P < 0.01) and absolute (1.73 +/- 0.16 compared with 0.55 +/- 0.12 mmol/L RBCs per day; P < 0.01) synthesis rates; and higher plasma oxidative stress (304 +/- 16 compared with 346 +/- 20 Carratelli units; P < 0.05) and plasma F(2)-isoprostanes (97.7 +/- 8.3 compared with 136.3 +/- 11.3 pg/mL; P < 0.05). Precursor supplementation in elderly subjects led to a 94.6% higher glutathione concentration, a 78.8% higher fractional synthesis rate, a 230.9% higher absolute synthesis rate, and significantly lower plasma oxidative stress and F(2)-isoprostanes. No differences in these measures were observed between younger subjects and supplemented elderly subjects ... Glutathione deficiency in elderly humans occurs because of a marked reduction in synthesis. Dietary supplementation with the glutathione precursors cysteine and glycine fully restores glutathione synthesis and concentrations and lowers levels of oxidative stress and oxidant damages. These findings suggest a practical and effective approach to decreasing oxidative stress in aging" - See L-glycine at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.

The impact of a Mediterranean diet and healthy lifestyle on premature mortality in men and women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 27 - "Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly related to lower mortality in women but not significantly in men. The healthy lifestyle score was strongly inversely related to mortality in women and men. When the least-healthy to the healthiest lifestyle scores were compared, HRs of 4.07 (95% CI: 2.59, 6.40; P-trend <0.001) and 2.61 (95% CI: 1.79, 3.80; P-trend <0.001) were shown in women and men, respectively. For the same comparison, the mortality rate advancement period ("aging effect") was 15.1 y (95% CI: 9.9, 20.2 y) in women and 8.4 y (95% CI: 5.0, 11.8 y) in men ... This study suggests that adherence to 4 modifiable healthy lifestyle factors can substantially reduce premature mortality in women and men"

Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection among US men - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jul 29 - "Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection were evaluated among 3,927 US men, 40-85 years of age, who participated in the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Five recommended definitions of prostate cancer detection were adopted using total and free prostate-specific antigen (tPSA and fPSA) laboratory measurements. Men were identified as high risk based on alternative cutoffs, namely tPSA > 10 ng/ml, tPSA > 4 ng/ml, tPSA > 2.5 ng/ml, %fPSA < 25%, and %fPSA < 15%. %fPSA was defined as (fPSA÷tPSA)× 100%. Serum levels of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters) and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene) were defined as quartiles and examined as risk/protective factors for PSA biomarkers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using binary logistic models. After adjustment for known demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle confounders, high serum levels of retinyl esters (tPSA > 10 ng/ml: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.00) and α-carotene (%fPSA < 15%: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32-0.76) were associated with a lower odds, whereas high serum level of lycopene (tPSA > 2.5 ng/ml: Q4 vs. Q1 → OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.14) was associated with a greater odds of prostate cancer detection. Apart from the three significant associations observed, no other exposure-outcome association was significant. Monitoring specific antioxidant levels may be helpful in the early detection of prostate cancer"

Preventive Action of Panax ginseng Roots in Hypercortisolism-induced Impairment of Hippocampal Neurons in Male C57BL/6N Mice - Phytother Res. 2011 Aug;25(8):1242-5 - "An increasing number of people suffering from hypercortisolism are at risk of developing hippocampus impairment and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the water extract of Panax ginseng roots (GWE) could prevent hypercortisolism-induced adverse consequences. Hypercortisolism was experimentally induced by repeated corticosterone injection in male mice. Treatment with corticosterone alone resulted in a significant decrease in hippocampus neurofilament light chain (NF-L) protein expression and induced depression-like behavior. Serum corticosterone was significantly increased in the corticosterone-treated mice. Treatment with GWE (800 and 400 mg/kg) during corticosterone treatment reduced or partially antagonized the effects induced by corticosterone toward the normal values of the controls; however, it failed to normalize increased corticosterone levels in corticosterone-treated mice. Overall, ginseng conclusively exhibited a protective action against hypercortisolism-induced impairment of hippocampal neurons" - See ginseng at Amazon.com. - Note:  The part about normalizing high cortisol, to the best of my knowledge that is nothing long term without very serious side effects that does that.

Mechanisms of Olive Leaf Extract-Ameliorated Rat Arthritis Caused by Kaolin and Carrageenan - Phytother Res. 2011 Jul 27 - "Olive leaf extract (OLE) has antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions. However, the role of OLE in mechanical inflammatory arthritis (osteoarthritis, OA) is unclear. This study investigated the effect of OLE on the development of kaolin and carrageenan-induced arthritis, a murine model of OA. Administration of OLE significantly ameliorated paw swelling, the paw Evans blue content and the histopathological scores. In the human monocyte cell line, THP-1, the OLE reduced the LPS-induced TNF-α production and was dose dependent. Croton oil-induced ear edema in mice also revealed that treatment with OLE suppressed ear edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production and was dose dependent. These results indicated that OLE is an effective antiarthritis agent through an antiinflammation mechanism. Also OLE may be beneficial for the treatment of OA in humans" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.

Effects of telmisartan and losartan on cardiovascular protection in Japanese hypertensive patients - Hypertens Res. 2011 Jul 28 - "A total of 58 patients were enrolled in the present trial and the follow-up period was 1 year. There were no significant differences in blood pressure (BP) levels between the telmisartan group and the losartan group throughout the trial. The percentage of the patients treated with ARB monotherapy was significantly higher in the telmisartan group compared with the losartan group. In addition, the progression of intima-media thickness of common carotid artery was significantly inhibited in the telmisartan group compared with the losartan group. Neither group experienced significant changes in cardiac function and LV mass index. There were no differences between the groups with respect to changes in surrogate markers such as serum adiponectin, creatinine, homeostasis model assessment index, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Although BP levels were equal and well controlled in both groups, telmisartan showed more protective vascular effects than losartan" - See my telmisartan as a first line treatment page and telmisartan at OffshoreRx1.com.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

Health Focus (Vitamin A):

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:


  • Retinol, vitamins A, C, and E and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jul 15 - "Overall, 51 studies met the inclusion criteria. Comparing the highest with the lowest intake, total vitamin A intake reduced the breast cancer risk by 17% (pooled OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78-0.88). Further subgroup analysis based on study design did not change the significant reduction. Although the dietary vitamin A, dietary vitamin E, and total vitamin E intake all reduced breast cancer risk significantly when data from all studies were pooled, the results became nonsignificant when data from cohort studies were pooled. The significant association between total retinol intake and breast cancer in all studies became nonsignificant in case-control studies but remain significant in cohort studies. No significant dose-response relationship was observed in the higher intake of these vitamins with reduced breast cancer risk"
  • Vitamin A Decreases Pre-receptor Amplification of Glucocorticoids in Obesity: Study on the Effect of Vitamin A on 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Activity in Liver and Visceral Fat of WNIN/Ob Obese Rats - Nutr J. 2011 Jun 23;10(1):70 - "11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and its inhibition ameliorates obesity and metabolic syndrome. So far, no studies have reported the effect of dietary vitamin A on 11beta-HSD1 activity in visceral fat and liver under normal and obese conditions. Here, we studied the effect of chronic feeding of vitamin A-enriched diet (129mg/kg diet) on 11beta-HSD1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats ... Control groups received stock diet containing 2.6mg vitamin A/kg diet, where as experimental groups received diet containing 129mg vitamin A/Kg diet for 20 weeks ... Vitamin A supplementation significantly decreased body weight, visceral fat mass and 11beta-HSD1 activity in visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. Hepatic 11beta-HSD1 activity and gene expression were significantly reduced by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha(C/EBPalpha), the main transcription factor essential for the expression of 11beta-HSD1, decreased in liver by vitamin A fed-obese rats, but not in lean rats. Liver X receptor alpha (LXR alpha), a nuclear transcription factor which is known to downregulate 11beta-HSD1 gene expression was significantly increased by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes" - Note:  See my 11beta-HSD1 page.  11beta-HSD1 goes hand in hand with cortisol.
  • Serum Retinol and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Nested Case-Control Study in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar 31 - "Vitamin A (retinol) plays a key role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and has been studied as a potential chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer ... the highest versus lowest concentrations of serum retinol were associated with a 42% reduction in aggressive prostate cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.02), with the strongest inverse association for high-grade disease (Gleason sum >7; odds ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.84; Ptrend = 0.01)"

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