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Home > Anti-aging Research > Vitamin K

Vitamin K

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  • Aortic Stiffness is Associated with Increased Risk of Incident Dementia in Older Adults - Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 66(1): 297–306 - "The Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study followed 532 non-demented older adults with annual cognitive exams from 1998–99 through 2013. CfPWV was measured on 356 (mean age = 78, 59% women) between 1996–2000. Over 15 years, 212 (59.6%) developed dementia (median time from cfPWV measurement = 4 years). In age and sex-adjusted Cox models, cfPWV was significantly associated with increased risk of dementia, but systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure were not. CfPWV (transformed as –1/cfPWV) remained significantly associated with dementia risk when further adjusted for education, race, APOE4, diabetes, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, and anti-hypertensive medication (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95%CI = 1.02, 2.51). Results were similar when further adjusted for baseline global cognition, subclinical brain measures, and coronary artery calcification. Finally, higher cfPWV was related to lower physical activity intensity and higher systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and waist circumference measured 5 years prior. An important unanswered question is whether interventions to slow arterial stiffening can reduce the risk of dementia" - [Nutra USA] - Note: Some studies support vitamin K for aortic stiffness:
    • Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women - Thromb Haemost 2015; 113(05): 1135-1144 - "Indices of local carotid stiffness (intimamedia thickness IMT, Diameter end-diastole and Distension) were measured by echotracking. Regional aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral and carotid-radial Pulse Wave Velocity, cfPWV and crPWV, respectively) was measured using mechanotransducers. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (dp-ucMGP) as well as acute phase markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and markers for endothelial dysfunction Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM), E-selectin, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) were measured. At baseline dp-ucMGP was associated with IMT, Diameter, cfPWV and with the mean z-scores of acute phase markers (APMscore) and of markers for endothelial dysfunction (EDFscore). After three year MK-7 supplementation cfPWV and the Stiffness Index β significantly decreased in the total group, whereas distension, compliance, distensibility, Young’s Modulus, and the local carotid PWV (cPWV) improved in women having a baseline Stiffness Index β above the median of 10.8. MK-7 decreased dp-ucMGP by 50 % compared to placebo, but did not influence the markers for acute phase and endothelial dysfunction. In conclusion, long-term use of MK-7 supplements improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women, especially in women having a high arterial stiffness" - [Nutra USA] - See MK-7 at Amazon.com.
    • Inactive Matrix Gla-Protein and Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 30, Issue 2, 1 February 2017 - "In our cross-sectional analysis, circulating dp-ucMGP was independently associated with CF-PWV in type 2 diabetes. This suggests that deficient vitamin K-dependent activation of MGP may lead to large artery stiffening and could be targeted with vitamin K supplementation in the patients with diabetes" - [Nutra USA]
  • Vitamin K2 Steps Into the Spotlight for Bone and Heart Health - Medscape, 10/10/18 - "For example, meat products typically include the MK-4 variants, whereas the traditional Japanese vegetarian dish natto ,made from fermented soybeans, contains MK-7, which provides the highest known vitamin K activity ... Supplemental K2 has been associated with significant reductions (approximately 25%-80%) in fracture risk when used alone or combined with vitamin D and calcium,[7,8] as well as with maintenance of bone density in osteoporotic patients.[9,10] K1 supplementation has shown comparatively less benefit for such outcomes ... K2 activates matrix Gla protein (MGP), which keeps calcium deposits from forming on vessel walls. Research has shown that adequate K2 intake generally frees calcium up for its more beneficial roles, whereas K2 deficiencies will lead to a buildup of calcifications ... Studies comparing relatively lower doses of MK-7 supplementation with placebo in early menopausal[14] and postmenopausal women[15] produced conflicting results, with the former experiencing no differences in bone loss at 1 year but the latter seeing less age-related decline in bone content and density at the femoral neck and lumbar spine at 3 years ... Certain varieties of K2 supplements, such as MK-7, have also been shown to interfere with anticoagulation therapy, whereas others like MK-4 carry no risk for hypercoagulation even at relatively high doses" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Low consumption of vitamin K by adolescents associated with unhealthy enlargement of the heart's major pumping chamber - Science Daily, 10/2/17 - "A study of 766 otherwise healthy adolescents showed that those who consumed the least vitamin K1 -- found in spinach, cabbage, iceberg lettuce and olive oil -- were at 3.3 times greater risk for an unhealthy enlargement of the major pumping chamber of their heart ... In the 14-18 year olds who consumed the least vitamin K1, the study found the overall size and wall thickness of the left ventricle were already significantly greater and the amount of blood the heart pumped out significantly lower ... Only 25 percent of the teens in the study met current adequate intake levels" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Kids with low vitamin K2 status at greater risk of fracture: new study - Nutraceutical Business Review, 6/13/17 - "Bone fractures are very common in children and their number is growing every year. Vitamin D has a proven role in the prevention of fractures… [but the] past decade has seen increased interest in the role of Vitamin K, especially K2 menaquinone-7, in bone health and prevention of bone fractures" - [Nutra USA] - See MK-7 at Amazon.com.
  • Efficiency of Use of Dietary Supplement Arteroprotect® In Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases - International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, Feb. 2017 - "In study group there was a significant reduction in mean values of cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL- cholesterol, as well as an increase in mean values of HDL-cholesterol, whereas in the control group there was a significant decrease in the mean values of all observed laboratory parameters. This indicates a significant impact ARTEROprotect® in terms of sinergistic effect with a statin. In fact, earlier studies have shown that as many as 56,2% of respondents who receive statin do not reach the target value of LDL-cholesterol" - Note:  The Nutra USA article claims that ARTEROprotect® contains 45 mcg of vitamin K2 and and 20 mg of octacosanol which is Policosanol.  See vitamin K2 at Amazon.com and Policosanol at Amazon.com.
  • Is Vitamin K2 the New Vitamin D? - Medscape, 11/18/14 - "Deficiencies of vitamin K2 are now being reported in serious journals to be associated with—get this—all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, many forms of cancer, dementia, and chronic inflammation" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • The Week in Bone Health | Breaking news on natural vitamin K2 MK-7 - betterbones.com, 6/25/12 - "Noted vitamin K expert Dr. Cees Vermeer led the European study which found that natural vitamin K2 as MK-7 (MenaQ 7 ®) significantly increases the strength of both the spine and the hip in postmenopausal women"
  • Vitamin K2: New hope for Parkinson's patients? - Science Daily, 5/11/12 - "Fruit flies (Drosophila) are frequently used in lab experiments because of their short life spans and breeding cycles, among other things ... When the flies were given vitamin K2, the energy production in their mitochondria was restored and the insects' ability to fly improved. The researchers were also able to determine that the energy production was restored because the vitamin K2 had improved electron transport in the mitochondria. This in turn led to improved energy production ... Vitamin K2 plays a role in the energy production of defective mitochondria. Because defective mitochondria are also found in Parkinson's patients with a PINK1 or Parkin mutation, vitamin K2 potentially offers hope for a new treatment for Parkinson's"
  • Vitamin K may cut lymph cancer risk: US study - Nutra USA, 4/21/10
  • Vitamin K may protect against developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, say Mayo Clinic researchers - Science Daily, 4/19/10 - "the risk of developing Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was approximately 45 percent lower for participants who had vitamin K intakes in the top quartile of intake in the study (>108 ug/day), compared to participants who had intakes in the bottom quartile (<39 ug/day). This association remained after accounting for other factors such as age, sex, education, obesity, smoking, alcohol use and intake of foods with high amounts of antioxidants"
  • New Vitamin K Analysis Supports The Triage Theory - Science Daily, 9/17/09 - "An important analysis conducted by Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute scientists suggests the importance of ensuring optimal dietary intakes of vitamin K to prevent age-related conditions such as bone fragility, arterial and kidney calcification, cardiovascular disease, and possibly cancer ... Average intakes of vitamin K in the United States and the United Kingdom are less even than currently recommended intakes, which are primarily based on levels to ensure adequate coagulation. McCann & Ames' analysis supports recommendations by some experts that non-clotting functions requiring vitamin K may need higher intakes than are currently recommended"
  • Study strengthens Vitamin K1's heart benefits - Nutra USA, 5/26/09 - "Subjects receiving a daily vitamin K1 plus multivitamin supplement experienced 6 per cent less progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), or hardening of the arteries that leads to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease" - [Abstract]
  • Review supports vitamin K's fracture reducing power - Nutra USA, 5/20/09 - "The most important findings in this review are that although supplementation with lower doses of vitamin K may be sufficient to reduce serum ucOC levels, supplementation with higher doses may be required for optimal bone health" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin K and prostate cancer – study supports benefits - Nutra USA, 3/31/09 - "increased intakes of vitamin K2, but not K1, were associated with a 35 per cent reduction in prostate cancer risk. The potential benefits of K2 were more pronounced for advanced prostate cancer ... A higher ratio of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) to intact total osteocalcin (iOC) is indicative of poorer vitamin K status ... of ucOC and iOC were analysed from serum samples, and every 0.1 increment in the ratio was associated with a 38 per cent increase in advanced-stage prostate cancer, and a 21 per cent increase in high-grade prostate cancer" - [Abstract] - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin K2, but not K1, effective for heart health benefits: Study - Nutra USA, 2/12/09 - "This study confirms our findings in the Rotterdam study, showing that increased vitamin K2 intake strongly reduces the risk of coronary heart disease" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin K Linked To Insulin Resistance In Older Men - Science Daily, 11/26/08 - "Vitamin K slowed the development of insulin resistance in elderly men in a study of 355 non-diabetic men and women ages 60 to 80 who completed a three-year clinical trial at the Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University"
  • Vitamin K2 linked to better heart health - Nutra USA, 9/10/08 - "When the intakes of K1 and K2 were divided into four groups from the lowest to highest, no association was found between K1 intakes and calcification. However, high consumption of K2 (about 45 micrograms per day) was associated with 20 per cent decreased coronary calcification, compared with low consumption of K2 (about 18micrograms per day)"
  • Effect of vitamin K supplementation on insulin resistance in older men and women - Diabetes Care. 2008 Aug 12 - "The effect of 36-month vitamin K supplementation on HOMA-IR differed by sex (sex-by-treatment interaction: P = 0.02). HOMA-IR was statistically significantly lower at the 36-month visit among men in the supplement group vs. the men in the control group (P = 0.01) after adjustment for baseline HOMA-IR, BMI, and body weight change. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome measures between intervention groups in women ... Vitamin K supplementation for 36 months at doses attainable in the diet may reduce progression of insulin resistance in older men"
  • Vitamin K good for young bones, too: study - Nutra USA, 7/17/08 - "These findings suggest that improvement in vitamin K status, and thus in the amount of active osteocalcin, might significantly improve bone health in children, even in those with arthritis"
  • Vitamin K2 linked to lower prostate cancer risk - Nutra USA, 4/9/08 - "While no reduction in the risk of prostate cancer was observed for vitamin K1 (phylloquinone), an increased intake of all menaquinones (vitamin K2) was associated with a 35 per cent reduction in risk"
  • Study gives vitamin K anti-inflammation boost - Nutra USA, 12/3/07 - "Limited in vitro data support the inverse association between vitamin K and interleukin-6, and this may influence the association between vitamin K and other cytokines, such as osteoprotegerin" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin K shows potential in the fight against wrinkles - Nutra USA, 10/19/07 - [Abstract] - "Recent studies have linked vitamin K to the elasticity of skin in patients suffering from pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an inherited condition resulting in severe wrinkling of the skin on the face and body"
  • Vitamin K linked to fewer varicose veins, better vascular health - Nutra USA, 8/23/07 - "they suggested that adequate dietary intake of vitamin K may be a necessary prerequisite in preventing the development of varicose veins" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin K may reverse arterial calcification - Nutra USA, 4/3/07 - "using 10-week old male Wistar Kyoto rats ... high-vitamin K intake (both K1 and K2) not only blocked the progress of further calcium accumulation but also lead to a greater than 37 per cent reduction of previously accumulated arterial calcium precipitates within six weeks"
  • Many Seniors Are Still Not Meeting The Recommended Intake Of Vitamin K - Science Daily, 2/12/07 - "Although older adults seem to consume more vitamin K than younger adults, many seniors are still not meeting the recommended intake of vitamin K ... Research has shown poor vitamin K intake may be associated with conditions such as bone fractures, bone loss, hardening of the arteries, and osteoarthritis"
  • Vitamin K may reverse artery hardening, suggests study - Nutra USA, 12/11/06 - "A high-dose vitamin K supplement reduced calcium precipitates associated with hardening of the arteries by 37 per cent in rats"
  • Study Suggests Vitamin K Deficiency as an Osteoporosis Risk Factor - Doctor's Guide, 9/22/06 - "one of the early effects of declining estrogen is the impairment of vitamin K function in bone even before any bone loss that could be attributed to menopause can be measured ... Our study suggests that the generally accepted level of vitamin K in healthy women is inadequate to maintain bone health just at the onset of menopause"
  • Vitamin K1-rich diet linked to better heart health - Nutra USA, 8/29/06
  • Strong support for vitamin K’s bone health benefits - Nutra USA, 6/27/06 - "Supplementation of vitamin K (MK-4) resulted in reductions in hip fractures of 77 per cent, vertebral fracture of 60 per cent, and all non-vertebral fractures of 81 per cent"
  • More support for vitamin K’s protection from osteoarthritis - Nutra USA, 4/12/06 - "Higher intake of vitamin K, found naturally in cabbage, spinach, cauliflower, and other green leafy vegetables, could reduce the risk of osteoarthritic knee problems by 40 per cent"
  • Vitamin K's Delicate Balancing Act - Life Extension Magazine, 4/06 - "Scientists have discovered that vitamin K regulates several biochemical processes that require exquisite balance to function normally, including blood coagulation, bone mineralization, and vascular health"
  • Vitamin K in the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis - Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2005;62(15):1574-1581/Medscape, 8/5/05 - "The results of two dose-response studies have indicated that (1) the amount of vitamin K needed for optimal γ-carboxylation of osteocalcin is significantly higher than what is provided by diet alone and (2) there is a need to increase current dosage recommendations to optimize bone mineralization"
  • Vitamin K Builds Strong Bones - New Hope Natural Media, 3/28/03 - "Without adequate vitamin K, osteocalcin cannot be produced, and bone formation becomes impaired ... when women with osteoporosis take supplemental vitamin K, the urinary excretion of calcium falls by about 50%, suggesting that less calcium is being leached from the bones ... Some research, however, suggests that the optimal level of intake may be higher, as much as 400 mcg per day. A typical western diet contains 80 to 150 mcg per day"
  • Vitamin K(1) Absorption Unreliable in Infants with Conjugated Hyperbilirubinaemia - Doctor's Guide, 3/5/03
  • Watch Out for Vitamin K? - Dr. Weil, 11/27/02
  • Low Bone Mineral Density and Quantitative Ultrasound in Men Associated with Low Vitamin K Status - Doctor's Guide, 9/23/02 - "Low vitamin K status is associated with low quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and low bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck and trochanter ... What we did was measure the amount of vitamin K in circulation and use the more sensitive measures of vitamin K status which was % undercarboxylated osteocalcin ... We corrected for triglycerides because vitamin K is transported in the blood by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins ... What we found was that the higher the amounts of vitamin K in the plasma, the higher the BMD" - So does that mean that if your triglycerides are in check you may need extra vitamin K? - Ben
  • Vitamin K Therapy Slows Spread of Liver Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 5/29/02 - "Results show that 59 percent of patients treated with vitamin K-II were alive at two years compared to 29 percent of those who were not given vitamin K-II (p=0.14). Invasion of the cancer into the portal vein occurred in 2 percent of the vitamin K-II treated group at one year and in 13 percent at two years, compared to 21 and 55 percent of controls, respectively" - Also see liver cancer.  Vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulfite) is put in animal foods and animal vitamins.
  • Hydrogenated Oils Affect Amount of Vitamin K Available to Bone - Doctor's Guide, 11/30/01 - "Hydrogenation of plant oils decreases the amount of vitamin K available to bone in consumers using food products containing the oils ... available data indicate that more than half of younger US adults do not meet the current guidelines governing adequate intake of the nutrient" - Another reason to stay away from the brands of peanut butter that are hydrogenated. - Ben