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Home > Anti-aging Research > Surgery

Surgery

Alternative News:

  • N-Acetylcysteine accelerates amputation stump healing in the setting of diabetes - FASEB J. 2017 Mar 9 - "Compared with controls, mice treated with daily NAC demonstrated improved postamputation stump healing, perfusion, adductor muscle neovascularization, and decreased muscle fiber damage" - Note:  That doesn’t pertain to very many people but it brings up the likelihood that it might benefit other types of surgery.  See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Status at ICU Admission May Predict A-Fib and Bedsores - Medscape, 2/28/17 - "Patients with Vitamin D levels below 20 ng/mL were nearly four times as likely to develop new-onset atrial fibrillation, with an odds ratio of 3.59 (95% CI, 1.01–12.70). On regression analysis, the risk for the condition decreased by 15% for each unit increase in vitamin D ... A second study of 402 surgical ICU patients found that 11 percent developed hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. Patients with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/mL were more than twice as likely to develop the ulcers (OR 2.51; 95% CI, 1.06–5.97). On regression analysis, the risk of ulcers fell by 11% with each unit increase in vitamin D" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • A Comprehensive Nutrition-Focused Quality Improvement Program Reduces 30-Day Readmissions and Length of Stay in Hospitalized Patients - JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2016 Dec 6 - "We tested effects of a nutrition-focused quality improvement program (QIP) on hospital readmission and length of stay (LOS) ... oral nutrition supplements (ONS) ... QIP-basic (QIPb) and QIP-enhanced (QIPe) ... Thirty-day readmissions and LOS were significantly lowered for malnourished inpatients by use of an EMR-cued MST, prompt provision of ONS, patient/caregiver education, and sustained nutrition support" - [Nutra USA]
  • Probiotic and synbiotic therapy in critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Crit Care. 2016 Aug 19;19:262 - "Thirty trials that enrolled 2972 patients were identified for analysis. Probiotics were associated with a significant reduction in infections (risk ratio 0.80, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.68, 0.95, P = 0.009; heterogeneity I (2) = 36 %, P = 0.09). Further, a significant reduction in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was found (risk ratio 0.74" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • ICU patients lose helpful gut bacteria within days of hospital admission - Science Daily, 8/31/16 - "treatments used in the ICU -- including courses of powerful antibiotics, medicines to sustain blood pressure, and lack of nutrition -- can reduce the population of known healthy bacteria ... the next step is to use the data to identify therapies -- perhaps including probiotics -- to restore a healthy bacterial balance to patients" - Note: No kidding.  Seems like they would have figured that out by now.  Every time I've gone to the hospital such as surgery for neck cancer twelve years ago, I was admitted thinking I could run a marathon that day and I left looking like the walking dead.  One reason is that even for minor surgery they give you enough antibiotics via IV to kill and elephant.  Another reason is lack of sleep.  I posted a study on the sleep issue about a year ago.  See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Beneficial Effects of Enteral Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Markers of Inflammation and Clinical Outcomes of Neonates Undergoing Cardiovascular Surgery: An Intervention Study - Ann Nutr Metab. 2016 Jul 9 - "organ dysfunctions (ODs) ... DHA group presented less sepsis, ODs and shorter stay" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Gut check: Does a hospital stay set patients up for sepsis by disrupting the body’s microbiome? - Science Daily, 6/1/15 - "We know that a major cause of microbiome disruption is antibiotic use. This study hints -- it does not prove, but it hints -- that profligate use of antibiotics might not just be bad because of antibiotic resistance. Profligate use of antibiotics might also, via the microbiome, put patients at increased risk of both all kinds of other infections, and to having a particularly bad response ('sepsis') to those infections" - Note:  It just seems like even if you go in for minor surgery they give you enough antibiotics via IV to kill an elephant.  See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D supplementation in the ICU patient - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jan 29 - "Both biological and observational studies support the role of vitamin D deficiency in adverse critical illness outcomes. Interventional trials of critically ill patients show that to improve vitamin D status, high-dose vitamin D3 is required. Critically ill patients have a relatively blunted response to vitamin D supplementation compared to the general outpatient population" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C supplementation in the critically ill patient - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jan 29 - "Restoration of normal plasma levels in inflammatory patients requires the administration of 3 g/day for several days ... The recent research on the modulation of oxidative stress and endothelial protection offer interesting therapeutic perspectives, based on the biochemical evidence, with limited or even absent side-effects" - See American Health Products - Ester C W/Citrus Bioflavonoids, 1000 mg, 180 veg tablets at Amazon.com.
  • Is glutamine deficiency the link between inflammation, malnutrition, and fatigue in cancer patients? - Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan 10 - "The data support our working hypothesis that in cancer patients systemic inflammation maintains a catabolic situation leading to malnutrition symptoms and glutamine deprivation, the latter being associated with cancer related fatigue" - See glutamine at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Glutamine Dipeptide Supplementation on Primary Outcomes for Elective Major Surgery: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Nutrients. 2015 Jan 9;7(1):481-499 - "GLN supplementation did not affect overall morbidity (RR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.36; p = 0.473) and infectious morbidity (RR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.38 to 1.07; p = 0.087). Patients treated with glutamine had a significant reduction in length of hospital stay (WMD = -2.67; 95% CI = -3.83 to -1.50; p < 0.0001)" - Note:  I don't understand why they're saying that it had no affect on overall morbidity and infection morbidity with a relative risk of 0.84 and 0.64 respectively.  See glutamine at Amazon.com.
  • Improved oxidative status in major abdominal surgery patients after N-acetyl cystein supplementation - Nutr J. 2015 Jan 6;14(1):4 - "Increased levels of reactive oxygen species during and after surgery may affect inflammatory response, post-operative adhesion molecule formation, and hemodynamic stability. The glutathione redox cycle is an important regulator in oxidative stress and its reduced forms scavenge free radicals. N-acetyl cysteine, a precursor of reduced glutathione, is considered as a potentially therapeutic wide spectrum agent in clinical practice ... Thirty-three patients diagnosed with pancreas, stomach, rectum, colon malignancies, and undergoing major abdominal surgery ... The study demonstrated the clinical importance of N-acetyl cysteine supplementation on antioxidant parameters in abdominal surgery patients. In these patients N-acetyl cysteine and vitamin administration can be considered as an effective method for improvement of oxidative status" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Critically ill ICU patients lose almost all of their gut microbes and the ones left aren't good - Science Daily, 9/23/14 - "patients with stays longer than a month had only one to four types of microbes in their gut, as measured from fecal samples -- compared to about 40 different types found in healthy volunteers ... the team found that adding an opioid drug to the mix -- which mimics stress signals released by sick patients -- could also switch behavior from a peaceful coexistence called commensalism to virulence for some microbe pairs ... doctors should try to find ways to minimize the excessive use of antibiotics and stabilize the microbes that do remain in ICU patients' guts"
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to increased risks after noncardiac surgery - Science Daily, 8/15/14 - "The researchers analyzed the relationship between vitamin D level and surgical outcomes in approximately 3,500 patients who underwent operations other than heart surgery between 2005 and 2011 ... Higher vitamin D concentrations were associated with decreased odds of in-hospital mortality/morbidity ... For each 5 ng/mL increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, the combined risk of death, cardiovascular events, or serious infections decreased by seven percent" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Preoperative oral supplementation support in patients with esophageal cancer - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(4):437-40 - "Fifty-five patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal cancer were included in this study. Of the 55 patients, 26 patients consumed a liquid dietary supplement (IMPACT group) before surgery and 29 patients did not (STANDARD group). Intervention: Before surgery, the IMPACT group consumed 750 ml (3 packs)/day of Impact® for 5 consecutive days ... Significantly fewer patients developed postoperative infections in the IMPACT group compared with the STANDARD group (p=.007): 4 of 21 patients in the IMPACT group and 10 of 29 patients in the STANDARD group. Either an infectious complication or another complication developed in 8 patients in the IMPACT group and 13 patients in the STANDARD group, with the result that 6 patients in the STANDARD group died of postoperative complications (p=.001). The duration of hospitalization was 34 days in the IMPACT group and 48 days in the STANDARD group; hence, hospitalization was significantly shorter in patients treated with Impact® (p=.008). The mean 6-month survival rates for the IMPACT group and the STANDARD group were 92% (24/26) and 72% (21/29), respectively (p=.028)" - Note:  That may be one reason I fully recovered from my stage III neck cancer nine years ago.  It also supports what I was saying about staying as healthy as possible for any medical condition.
  • Effect of β-Glucan on Drain Fluid and Amount of Drainage Following Modified Radical Mastectomy - Adv Ther. 2014 Jan 14 - "One hundred and thirty breast cancer patients of Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital were divided into 2 groups by consecutive randomization (n = 65 each). β-glucan 10 mg capsules were administered to Group 1 twice a day for 10 days. Group 2 took placebos in the same manner ... Group 1 showed significantly lower daily drainage volumes between days 2 and 8. Mean drain removal day was 7.16 ± 1.72 in Group 1 and 8.59 ± 2.27 in Group 2. The difference was significant (p < 0.001). TNF-α and IL-6 levels on days 1 and 2 in Group 1 were significantly lower (p < 0.001). In addition, β-glucan significantly shortened the number of days required for the drain removal in patients who have comorbidities (p = 0.018). The earliest removal was in patients without comorbidity and who received β-glucan" - See beta glucan at Amazon.com.
  • Pomegranate Supplementation Protects against Memory Dysfunction after Heart Surgery: A Pilot Study - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:932401 - "Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery were given either 2 g of pomegranate extract (in 2 POMx pills) or placebo (pills containing no pomegranate ingredients) per day from one week before surgery to 6 weeks after surgery. The patients were also administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to assess memory function at 1 week before surgery (baseline), 2 weeks after surgery, and 6 weeks after surgery. The placebo group had significant deficits in postsurgery memory retention, and the pomegranate treatment not only protected against this effect, but also actually improved memory retention performance for up to 6 weeks after surgery as compared to presurgery baseline performance" - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.
  • Stimulation of Wound Healing by n-3 Fatty Acids - Medscape, 8/27/13 - "Four-week-old male Wistar rats were subjected to full-thickness skin wounds and assigned to 3 experimental diet groups (an n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet, a diet with a 1:3 ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids, and an n-6 fatty acid-fortified diet) ... The number of days to wound healing in the n-3/n-6 fatty acid group (18.4 +/- 1.8 days) was significantly shorter than in the n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet (21.6 +/- 1.6 days) and n-6 fatty acid-fortified diet groups (21.9 +/- 1.8 days). This suggests that the n-3/n-6 fatty acid diet stimulates wound healing (P < 0.05). Changes in wound area, however, were not significantly different. The n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet was found to have potent immunopotentiating and anti-inflammatory effects in the group receiving this diet, as evidenced by total blood lymphocyte count and plasma levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and sialic acid on day 1 after wounding. The plasma hydroxyproline concentrations noted in the groups with a diet containing n-3 fatty acids indicate that this fatty acid type stimulates wound healing" - Note:  It claims the 1:3 ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids but the average ratio for American's is something like 1:16 See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of vitamin C and vitamin D administration on mood and distress in acutely hospitalized patients - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 24 - "vitamin C (500 mg twice daily ... Vitamin C provided for a mean of 8.2 d increased plasma vitamin C concentrations to normal (P < 0.0001) and was associated with a 71% reduction in mood disturbance (P = 0.0002) and a 51% reduction in psychological distress" - See vitamin C at Amazon.com.
  • The Effect of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on Wound Healing Using a Dressing Model - J Altern Complement Med. 2013 Jul 13 - "The current study used the same dressing model with patients who had wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Ten participants volunteered for the quasi-experimental study, and four of the 10 were used as matched participants to compare wound healing times between conventional treatment alone and conventional treatment plus fumes of tea tree essential oil. The results demonstrated decreased healing time in all but one of the participants treated with tea tree oil. The differences between the matched participants were striking" - See tea tree products at iHerb.
  • Impact of Oral Nutritional Supplementation on Hospital Outcomes - The American Journal of Managed Care, 2/13/13 - "Using the instrumental variables method, this study found that the use of ONS led to statistically significant decreases in inpatient LOS, episode cost, and readmission. Given the high prevalence of malnutrition among inpatient populations, these results suggest that ONS use could help improve outcomes at relatively low cost to the healthcare system. Today, hospitals are facing pressures to find low-cost, highly effective therapy while maintaining quality of care. By increasing ONS use, hospitals can improve hospitalization outcomes and decrease healthcare spending"
  • Fish Oil-Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition in Patients Following Esophageal Cancer Surgery: Effect on Inflammation and Immune Function - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Jan;65(1):71-75 - "inflammation [serum procalcitonin (PCT) ... PCT level was notably lower and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was markedly higher in the ω-3 PUFAs group ... ω-3 PUFAs supplemented PN can reduce inflammation and improve immune function in patients following esophageal cancer surgery" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Glutamine in the ICU: Who needs supply? - Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec 14 - "Many ICU patients are glutamine depleted and have low glutamine plasma concentrations. Beneficial effects by glutamine supply could be proven in these patients. In some medical conditions, especially those with acute right heart failure, elevated glutamine plasma concentrations are present and glutamine supply may be disastrous and a toxic burden. It will be prudent to reassess the use of glutamine in ICU especially in conditions with unresolved shock or right heart failure" - See L-glutamine at Amazon.com.
  • Arginine and proline enriched diet may speed wound healing in diabetes - Science Daily, 11/15/12 - "Researchers divided 18 rats into three groups that were either fed a standard diet, a high-protein diet, or a high protein diet supplemented with arginine and proline (ARG+PRO) ... Rats on both high protein diets had better nitrogen balance than those on the standard diet. However, the wounds of the rats on the ARG+PRO diet showed more new blood vessel growth on day 5. New blood vessel growth is an essential part of wound healing as the blood vessels supply nutrition and oxygen to growing tissue ... arginine and proline supplementation could offer new hope for effective treatment in diabetic patients with chronic wounds" - See L-arginine products at Amazon.com and proline at Amazon.com.
  • Time to wound closure in trauma patients with disorders in wound healing is shortened by supplements containing antioxidant micronutrients and glutamine: A PRCT - Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 25 - "20 trauma patients with disorders in wound healing were orally supplemented with antioxidant micronutrients (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, zinc, selenium) and glutamine (verum) or they received isoenergetic amounts of maltodextrine (placebo) for 14 days ... Wound closure occurred more rapidly in the verum than in the placebo group (35 +/- 22 vs. 70 +/- 35 d; P = 0.01)" - See L-glutamine at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics reduce infections for patients in intensive care, study finds - Science Daily, 12/1/11 - "including probiotics with nutrients, supplied via the patient's feeding tube, increased interferon levels, reduced the number of infections, and even reduced the amount of time patients spent in intensive care ... by day 15 the patients who received the probiotics had significantly higher levels of both IL-12 and IFNy than the control patients. They also showed a decrease in the Th2-associated factors IL-4 and IL-10 ... probiotic therapy reduced the number of infections occurring after seven days, reduced the number of different antibiotics needed to treat infections, and shortened the length of time the patients were required to stay in ICU"
  • Fish oil attenuates surgery-induced immunosuppression, limits post-operative metastatic dissemination and increases long-term recurrence-free survival in rodents inoculated with cancer cells - Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 26 - "ω-3FA feeding attenuates or even overcomes postoperative NK cell suppression, increases resistance to experimental and spontaneous metastasis, and enhances recurrence-free survival following excision of metastasizing primary tumors" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Copper reduces infection risk by more than 40 per cent, experts say - Science Daily, 7/1/11 - "Copper's rapid destruction of pathogens could prevent mutational resistance developing and also help reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance genes to receptive and potentially more virulent organisms, as well as genes responsible for virulence. Additionally, copper touch surfaces could have a key role in preventing the transmission of healthcare-associated infections. Extensive laboratory tests have demonstrated copper's antimicrobial efficacy against key organisms responsible for these infections, and clinical trials around the world are now reporting on its efficacy in busy, real-world environments ... the use of antimicrobial copper surfaces in intensive care unit rooms resulted in a 40.4% reduction in the risk of acquiring a hospital infection ... Data .. demonstrated a 97% reduction in surface pathogens in rooms with copper surfaces, the same level achieved by "terminal" cleaning: the regimen conducted after each patient vacates a room"
  • Careful cleaning of children's skin wounds key to healing, regardless of antibiotic choice - Science Daily, 2/21/11 - "proper wound care, not antibiotics, may have been the key to healing"
  • Effect of High-dose Vitamin C on Oxygen Free Radical Production and Myocardial Enzyme after Tourniquet Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury during Bilateral Total Knee Replacement - J Int Med Res. 2010 Jul-Aug;38(4):1519-29 - "In the VC group, malondialdehyde levels were lower, and arterial oxygen tension and mean blood pressure were higher, than in controls after post-operative deflation of both knee tourniquets. Troponin I levels were lower in the VC group than in controls 8 h post-operation. Administering high-dose vitamin C during bilateral TKR could prevent oxygen free radical production and a decline in arterial oxygen tension and mean blood pressure induced by ischaemia-reperfusion injury, thereby protecting the myocardium"
  • Vitamin C rapidly improves emotional state of acutely hospitalized patients, study suggests - Science Daily, 9/23/10 - "Treatment with vitamin C rapidly improves the emotional state of acutely hospitalized patients ... About one in five acute-care patients in our hospital have vitamin C levels so low as to be compatible with scurvy ... But patients are rarely given vitamin supplements. Most physicians are simply unaware of the problem"
  • Vitamin C requirement in surgical patients - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Aug 4 - "Blood vitamin C concentration falls after uncomplicated surgery and further decreases in surgical intensive care unit patients. The decline may be owing to increased demand caused by increased oxidative stress. To normalize plasma vitamin C concentration, much higher doses than the recommended daily allowance or doses recommended in parenteral nutrition guidelines are needed in these patients. In uncomplicated surgical patients, more than 500 mg/day of vitamin C may be required, with much higher doses in surgical intensive care unit patients. In uncomplicated gastrointestinal surgery, continuous parenteral administration of 500 mg/day of vitamin C reduced postoperative oxidative stress as manifested by reduced urinary excretion of isoprostane. In some studies, postoperative atrial fibrillation was prevented after cardiac surgery by perioperative vitamin C supplementation. In critically ill patients, some prospective randomized controlled trials support parenteral supplementation of high doses of vitamin C, E and trace elements" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Glutamine in critical illness: the time has come, the time is now - Crit Care Clin. 2010 Jul;26(3):515-25 - "Glutamine (GLN) has been shown to be a key pharmaconutrient in the body's response to stress and injury. It exerts its protective effects via multiple mechanisms, including direct protection of cells and tissue from injury, attenuation inflammation, and preservation of metabolic function. Data support GLN as an ideal pharmacologic intervention to prevent or treat multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after sepsis or other injuries in the intensive care unit population. A large and growing body of clinical data shows that in well-defined critically ill patient groups GLN can be a life-saving intervention" - See L-glutamine at Amazon.com
  • Fish oil given intravenously to patients in intensive care has many benefits, study finds - Science Daily, 1/18/10 - "A randomised controlled trial of fish oil given intravenously to patients in intensive care has found that it improves gas exchange, reduces inflammatory chemicals and results in a shorter length of hospital stay"
  • New Role Of Vitamin C In Skin Protection; Relevance To The Cosmetics Industry - Science Daily, 9/8/09 - "a form of Vitamin C helped to promote wound healing and also helped protect the DNA damage of skin cells ... Previously, the group has published evidence that DNA repair is upregulated in people consuming vitamin C supplements ... The results demonstrated that vitamin C may improve wound healing by stimulating quiescent fibroblasts to divide and by promoting their migration into the wounded area. Vitamin C could also protect the skin by increasing the capacity of fibroblasts to repair potentially mutagenic DNA lesions ... Free radicals are associated with premature skin aging, and antioxidants, such as vitamin C, are known to counter these highly damaging compounds. This new evidence suggest that, in addition to ‘mopping up’ free radicals, vitamin C can help remove the DNA damage they form, if they get past the cell’s defences"
  • The role of parenteral glutamine supplement for surgical patient perioperatively: result of a single center, prospective and controlled study - Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2008 Aug 20 - "In terms of morbidity, there was no difference between the two groups, but two patients in the control group had wound infection; none was noted in the Gln group (p = 1.0). No surgical mortality was noted in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative parenteral nutrition supplemented with Gln is beneficial for patients undergoing GI surgery. Gln supplementation significantly attenuated postoperative inflammation and ameliorated postoperative immunodepression as well as nutritional depression in GI surgery" - See L-glutamine at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C, Surgery, Arnica Montana - Dr. Weil, 1/4/08
  • Exercise May Play Role In Reducing Inflammation In Damaged Skin Tissue - Science Daily, 11/28/07 - "moderate exercise sped up how fast wounds heal in old mice ... the improved healing response “may be the result of an exercise-induced anti-inflammatory response in the wound.” ... Cytokines are molecules that signal and direct immune cells, such as macrophages, to the site of an infection ..."
  • Vitamin D3 Provides Skin With Protection From Harmful Microbes - Science Daily, 2/12/07 - "fluctuations in Vitamin D3 levels control the body's innate immune response, affecting a skin wound's ability to heal" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Evaluation of clinical safety and beneficial effects of a fish oil containing lipid emulsion (Lipoplus, MLF541): Data from a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial - Crit Care Med. 2007 Jan 25 - "from fish oil (Lipoplus) ... there was a significantly shorter length of hospital stay of approximately 21% ... the administration of Lipoplus in the postoperative period after major abdominal surgery is safe and results in a significantly shorter length of hospital stay"
  • Exercise Helps Speed Wound Healing in Older Adults - Doctor's Guide, 1/4/06 - "a new study in older adults finds that regular exercise may speed up the wound-healing process by as much as 25%"
  • Glutamine Independently Reduces Hospital Stay - Doctor's Guide, 10/25/05 - "The nutrient glutamine, which is often administered as part of nutritional supplementation, on its own can reduce the length of hospital stay and maintains lean body mass after elective surgery" - See iHerb glutamine products.
  • Supplement Speeds Wound Healing - WebMD, 7/8/04 - "Those getting InflammEnz healed 17% faster, and experienced less redness and swelling at the site of the biopsy ... InflammEnz, an herbal product, contains seven different nutrients and enzymes, including calcium and potassium ... Vitamin C ... Bromelain ... Rutin ... Grape seed extract"
  • Supplement Use in Sickness and in Health - WebMD, 5/24/04 - "Bromelain is an anti-inflammatory [that] prevents soft tissue swelling, and decreases various markers of pain and inflammation ... In one study of 74 boxers, 80% of minor injuries from bruising and swelling cleared in just four days in those boxers who took bromelain supplements after a big fight, compared with only 14% clearing of minor injuries in those who took placebo" - See iHerb bromelain products.
  • Immune-Enhancing Therapy Shortens Hospital Stays By Three Days - Doctor's Guide, 12/23/99 - "The trials, conducted at medical centers in the U.S. and Europe, compared patients receiving standard enteral nutrition with patients who received commercially available immune-enhancing therapies containing arginine and glutamine (naturally occurring amino acids), nucleotides (found in yeast), and omega-3 fatty acids (found in fish oil) ... Our study shows that immunonutrition can make a significant contribution to reducing the number of infections and length of hospital stay in critically ill patients"

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