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Anti-aging Research > Spirulina
News & Research:
Spirulina (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) - M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
Spirulina shows immune boosting power for seniors - Nutra USA, 2/17/11 -
"Twelve weeks of spirulina supplementation were
associated with increased counts of white blood cells, foot soldiers of the
immune system ... Immune function was measured using complete blood cell
(CBC) counts and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity, and
results showed that over half of all participants receiving spirulina had
higher IDO activity after 6 and 12 weeks, while this proportion was
“striking in men with over 75 percent of subjects manifesting such
phenomenon” ... In terms of cell counts, spirulina was associated with a
steady increase in corpuscular hemoglobin, thereby ameliorating anemia"
Spirulina extract may reverse pain sensitivity - Nutra USA, 6/2/09 -
"Both doses of C-phycocyanin were found to
“significantly attenuate carrageenan-induced” inflammation ... Markers of
inflammation, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),
cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2), and the formation of nitrate, tumour necrosis
factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin E2, were also measured ... induction
of both iNOS and COX-2 was suppressed by the compound, and this was accompanied
by an inhibition of the nitrate, PGE, and TNF-alpha formation" - [Abstract]
spirulina at Amazon.com.
Want Antioxidants? Have You Eaten Micro-algae Lately? - Science Daily,
- In Praise of Spirulina
- CancerDecisions.com, 12/12/02 -
"According to a recent scientific review from Latin
America, spirulina has a vast array of beneficial properties. It has been
shown to be effective in the treatment of allergies, anemia, cancer, high
cholesterol, elevated blood sugar, viral infections, inflammatory
conditions, liver damage, immunodeficiency, cardiovascular diseases, and
other conditions ... In a 2002 Japanese study, 12 adult males were
administered an oral hot water extract of spirulina, and the number and
activity of their natural killer (NK) cells was measured before and after
treatment. (NK cells destroy tumor cells by binding to them and delivering
lethal chemicals that kill on contact.) At the study's end, there was a
significant increase in the production and cancer-killing
ability of these subjects' NK cells ... Spirulina also shows potential for
decreasing the adverse effects of both
chemotherapy and radiation"
- Pond Scum Makes a
Health Splash, Scientists Debate Immune Benefits of Spirulina Algae -
- Spirulina May Boost
Immune Response - Medscape, 12/8/00 -
"We found that nutrient-rich spirulina is a potent
inducer of interferon-gamma (13.6-fold increase) and a moderate stimulator
of both interleukin-4 and interleukin-1beta (3.3-fold increase)"
Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Improves Lifespan and Locomotor Activity in
Paraquat-Sensitive DJ-1βΔ93 Flies, a Parkinson's Disease Model in Drosophila
melanogaster - J Diet Suppl. 2017 Feb 6:1-16 -
"Apart from high protein contents, it also contains high levels of antioxidant
and anti-inflammatory compounds, such as carotenoids, β-carotene, phycocyanin,
and phycocyanobilin, indicating its possible pharmaco-therapeutic utility ...
Our results suggest that antioxidant boosting properties of spirulina can be
used as a nutritional supplement for improving the lifespan and locomotor
behavior in Parkinson's disease" - See
spirulina at Amazon.com.
A randomized, double
blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of
mental and physical fatigue in men - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016;67(2):203-6 -
"After 1 week, a 3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a
small, but statistically significant increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed
in 30 min exercise on a cross trainer machine). A mathematical based mental
fatigue test showed improved performance 4 h after the first time of
supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a
sense of physical and mental fatigue showed improvement within 4 h of the first
supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. These results show that spirulina
intake can affect fatigue in men" - [Nutra
of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases -
Nutrients. 2016 Jun 21;8(6) - "We previously
demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE), an edible
blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects ... Our results
suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC
protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding
at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect"
randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation
on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016
Feb 17:1-4 - "Spirulina may increase people's ability to
resist mental and physical fatigue. This study tested that hypothesis in a
randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study in men. After 1 week, a
3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a small, but statistically significant
increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed in 30 min exercise on a cross
trainer machine). A mathematical based mental fatigue test showed improved
performance 4 h after the first time of supplementation as well as 8 weeks
later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a sense of physical and mental fatigue
showed improvement within 4 h of the first supplementation as well as 8 weeks
later. These results show that spirulina intake can affect fatigue in men"
review and meta-analysis of the impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma
lipid concentrations - Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep 25 -
"This meta-analysis showed a significant effect of supplementation with
Spirulina in reducing plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C,
triglycerides and elevating those of HDL-C"
daily supplementation of Spirulina platensis on the immune system of naïve HIV-1
patients in Cameroon: a 12-months single blind, randomized, multicenter trial
- Nutr J. 2015 Jul 21 - "The significant increase of CD4
count cells (596.32-614.92 cells count) and significant decrease of viral load
levels (74.7 × 103-30.87 × 103 copies/mL) of the patients who received a
supplementation of S. platensis was found after 6 months of treatment.
Haemoglobin level was also significantly higher in the same group while the
fasting blood glucose concentration decreased after 12 months compared to
Spirulina platensis supplementation on lipid profile in HIV-infected
antiretroviral naive patients in Yaounde - Cameroon: a randomized trial study
- Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Dec 13;13(1):191 - "Patients were randomized and
received either Spirulina supplementation combined with local diet (n = 82) or
local diet only (n = 87) ... there is a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol
and a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and
triglycerides in the group of patients who consumed Spirulina platensis"
spirulina at Amazon.com.
spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic
Wistar rats - Lipids Health Dis. 2011 May 15;10(1):77 -
"The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic
Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise;
Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina;
Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that
included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic
rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and
DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as
lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to
DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total
circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in
conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats"
effects of Spirulina on anemia and immune function in senior citizens - Cell
Mol Immunol. 2011 Jan 31 - "Participants took a
supplementation for 12 weeks and were administered comprehensive dietary
questionnaires to determine their nutritional regimen during the study. Complete
cell count (CCC) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity, as a
immune function, were
determined at baseline and weeks 6 and 12 of supplementation. Thirty study
participants completed the entire study and the data obtained were analyzed.
Over the 12-week study period, there was a steady increase in average values of
mean corpuscular hemoglobin
in subjects of both sexes. In addition, mean corpuscular volume and mean
corpuscular hemoglobin concentration also increased in male participants. Older
women appeared to benefit more rapidly from Spirulina supplements. Similarly,
the majority of subjects manifested increased IDO activity and
white blood cell count at 6 and 12 weeks of
Spirulina supplementation. Spirulina may ameliorate anemia and immunosenescence
in older subjects"
Antiinflammatory and antihyperalgesic activity of C-phycocyanin - Anesth
Analg. 2009 Apr;108(4):1303-10 - "Pre- or posttreatment
with C-PC (30 or 50 mg/kg, IP) significantly attenuated carrageenan-induced
inflammatory nociception and the induction of iNOS and COX-2 at the late phase,
(4 h) accompanied by an inhibition of the formation of TNF-alpha, prostaglandin
E(2), nitrate and myeloperoxidase activity ... Based on these results, it is
suggested that the inhibition of NO and prostaglandin E(2) over-production
through suppressing iNOS and COX-2 induction and attenuation of TNF-alpha
formation and neutrophil infiltration into inflammatory sites by C-PC may
contribute, at least in part, to its antihyperalgesic activity"
Antihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open
sample of Mexican population: a preliminary report - Lipids Health Dis.
2007 Nov 26;6:33 - "the calculated values for
cholesterol associated to low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) were significantly
reduced by the Spirulina maxima ... significant differences were found
comparing initial and final SYST-P and DIAST-P blood pressure in both male
and female: SYST-P male 121 +/- 9 vs. 111 +/- 8 mm Hg (p < 0.01), DIAST-P
male 85 +/- 6.5 vs. 77 +/- 9 mm Hg (p < 0.01); SYST-P female 120 +/- 9.5 vs.
109 +/- 11 mm Hg (p < 0.002), DIAST-P female 85 +/- 11 vs. 79 +/- 7.5 mm Hg"
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