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Anti-aging Research > Calorie Restriction.
News & Research:
restriction: A fountain of youth for aging muscles? - Science Daily, 4/22/15
- "while 14 weeks of calorie restriction did not
significantly affect the middle-aged rats, it reduced muscle mass in the young
rats. Calorie restriction slowed the glycolytic rate in the muscles and
increased the cells' dependency for OXPHOS versus glycolysis in older rats,
which was linked to improvement of normalized muscle mass. The team also found
that "14 weeks of CR reprogrammed cellular metabolism, where the relative
contribution of OXPHOS and glycolysis in muscles of middle-aged rats with CR was
similar to that in muscles of young rats"
Improved Survival in Cancer
Patients With High Vitamin D - Medscape, 5/1/14 -
"overall survival for colorectal and breast cancer patients in the highest
quartile of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels was significantly
better than it was for those in the lowest quartile of 25(OH)D levels ...
Overall survival was also significantly better for lymphoma patients in the
highest 25(OH)D quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile ...
Considering that vitamin D deficiency is widespread around the world, our
suggestion is to ensure everyone has sufficient levels of this important
nutrient — that is, circulating 25(OH)D levels — greater than 75 nmol/L ... when
investigators compared 25(OH)D levels in the range of 40 to 70 nmol/L to levels
<19 nmol/L, they found that a 10-nmol/L increase in circulating vitamin D levels
upon cancer diagnosis was associated with a 4% reduction in all-cause mortality
among all cancer patients in whom a dose-response relationship was assessed"
vitamin D at Amazon.com.
Pill linked to long life in
mice - BBC News, 7/31/13 - "Scientists believe the
drug, metformin, may mimic the effects of extreme calorie restriction ...
Metformin is one of the most widely prescribed treatments for type-2 diabetes,
which occurs mainly in people above the age of 40. It is also used to treat
metabolic syndrome, a combination of diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity
... The scientists gave one of two different doses of metformin to middle-aged
male mice and found that lower doses increased lifespan by about 5%, and also
delayed the onset of age-associated diseases" - Note: I've been taking
it in low doses for years to help combat aging. See
metformin at IAS.
diabetes drug delays aging in worms - Science Daily, 3/28/13 -
"Following a calorie-restricted diet has been shown to
improve health in later life and extend lifespan in a number of animals, ranging
from the simple worm to rhesus monkeys. The type 2 diabetes drug metformin has
been found to have similar effects in animals ... Overall, treatment with
metformin adds up to 6 days of life for the worm which is equivalent to around a
third of its normal lifespan. It seems to work by altering metabolism in the
bacteria that live in the worm, which in turn limits the nutrients that are
available to the worm host and has a similar effect to restricting the diet ...
However, when they added an excess of sugar to the diet, the team found that the
life-extending effects of metformin were cancelled out" - See
metformin at IAS.
Extra Pounds Linked to a Longer Life - WebMD, 1/1/13 -
"The review, of 97 studies that included a combined 2.88
million people, questions the notion that people of normal weight live longest
... People with BMIs under 30 but above normal were less likely to die during
the studies compared to people with normal BMIs ... A reduction in the risk of
death from all causes was about 6% lower for people who were overweight ...
Those people considered obese based on BMI, however, were worse off. They were
about 18% more likely to die of any cause compared to those of normal weights"
Dieting Monkeys Don't Always Live Longer, Says Study - ABC News, 8/29/12 -
"As the latest Nature dispatch found, the NIA monkeys
fed a calorie-restricted diet didn't live any longer than monkeys on a
higher-calorie diet. No matter what they ate, maximum lifespan seems to hover
around 40 years of age. Half the monkeys that began the study as youngsters were
still alive, but the researchers say, based on survival patterns, they predict
the remaining calorie-restrictors and controls will all live to be about the
same age ... These latest findings are at odds with the WNPRC study in which
calorie-restricted monkeys have far outlived the controls ... the study design
might account for some of the disparities ... For one thing, the Wisconsin
monkeys subsisted on a diet that shared many of the same unhealthy aspects of a
typical Western diet ... The NIA monkeys were already eating so healthy to begin
with, the calorie reduction may not have provided much more of a health
Calorie-restricted diet keeps heart young - Science Daily, 6/6/12
Red wine antioxidant could give metabolism a boost - USATODAY.com, 11/1/11 -
"For the study, Schrauwen's team gave resveratrol to 11
obese, but otherwise healthy men. The men took 150 milligrams of the supplement
a day for 30 days. To get that much resveratrol
from wine would mean drinking over two gallons of wine a day ... resveratrol
acted much like a low-calorie diet in terms of reducing energy expenditure and
improving metabolism and overall health ... Changes included a lower metabolic
rate, reduced fat in the liver, lower blood pressure and lower blood sugar. The
men also had changes in the way their muscles burned fat ... In obesity, it's
not clear whether burning fewer calories is a good or a bad thing ... It
suggests, however, that cells were functioning more efficiently, as they do on a
calorie-restricted diet" - [ABC
News] - See
resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
longer with fewer calories? Key enzyme involved in aging process found -
Science Daily, 10/31/11 - "We are able to show that
caloric restriction slows down aging by preventing an enzyme, peroxiredoxin,
from being inactivated. This enzyme is also extremely important in counteracting
damage to our genetic material ... Prx1 is damaged during aging and loses its
activity. Caloric restriction counteracts this by increasing the production of
another enzyme, Srx1, which repairs Prx1. Interestingly, the study also shows
that aging can be delayed without caloric restriction by only increasing the
quantity of Srx1 in the cell. Repair of the peroxiredoxin Prx1 consequently
emerges as a key process in aging ... Impaired Prx1 function leads to various
types of genetic defects and cancer. Conversely, we can now speculate whether
increased repair of Prx1 during aging can counteract, or at least delay, the
development of cancer"
from Everest: Can leucine help burn fat and spare muscle tissue during exercise?
- Science Daily, 8/28/11 - "Research on Mt. Everest
climbers is adding to the evidence that an amino acid called leucine -- found in
foods, dietary supplements, energy bars and other products -- may help people
burn fat during periods of food restriction, such as climbing at high altitude,
while keeping their muscle tissue ... We knew that leucine has been shown to
help people on very low-calorie, or so-called 'calorie-restricted diets', stay
healthy at sea level ... the findings also could help people at lower altitudes
who want to lose weight while preserving their lean body mass, or who are
elderly and don't eat or exercise enough to maintain their strength" -
leucine products at Amazon.com.
and healthy? Study finds slim isn't always superior - Science Daily,
8/15/11 - "obese people who are otherwise healthy
live just as long as their slim counterparts, and are less likely to die of
cardiovascular causes ... Kuk's team looked at 6,000 obese Americans over a
16-year span, comparing their mortality risk with that of lean individuals"
- Note: I though this in because it makes you wonder if being cranky all
your life from calorie restriction is worth it.
Mouse study turns fat-loss/longevity link on its head - Science Daily,
5/3/11 - "studied the effect of food restriction on
fat and weight loss in 41 genetically different strains of mice. The
scientists then correlated the amount of fat reduction to life span ... The
answer: Mice that maintained their fat actually lived longer. Those that
lost fat died earlier ... People are best advised to adopt a moderate
approach, not losing all fat but definitely not keeping unhealthy amounts of
fat, either ... None of the mice in this study were what we would consider
to be obese"
Routine periodic fasting is good for your health, and your heart, study
suggests - Science Daily, 4/3/11 - "fasting not
only lowers one's risk of coronary artery disease and diabetes, but also
causes significant changes in a person's blood cholesterol levels ...
fasting was also found to reduce other cardiac risk factors, such as
triglycerides, weight, and blood sugar levels ... During the 24-hour fasting
periods, HGH increased an average of 1,300 percent in women, and nearly
2,000 percent in men"
Exercise and caloric restriction rejuvenate synapses in lab mice -
Science Daily, 8/2/10
Eat less, live longer? - New Scientist, 6/3/10 -
"One piece of evidence for this idea comes from studies in fruit flies and
rodents. If these animals are fed special diets with less amino acids - the
building blocks of proteins - they can eat as many calories as they want and
still live longer ... The protein theory is bad news for people on
low-carbohydrate weight-loss plans like the Atkins diet. "I'd be wary of
diets that put a heavy emphasis on protein," says Piper. "It's hard to see
how that could be healthy." Fontana goes one step further, saying that
high-protein diets could risk accelerated ageing and cancer ... There may be
another reason for vegans to celebrate. Studies on flies and rodents suggest
that cutting intake of one particular amino acid, called methionine,
lengthens life to a similar degree as calorie restriction. Proteins in meat
and other animal products have high levels of methionine, so a vegan diet
would score well by that measure, too"
Calorie restriction leads scientists to molecular pathways that slow aging,
improve health - Science Daily, 4/15/10 - "About
30 percent of the animals on calorie restriction die at an advanced age
without any diseases normally related to aging," Fontana says. "In contrast,
among animals on a standard diet, the great majority (94 percent) develop
and die of one or more chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. In
30 percent to 50 percent of the animals on calorie restriction, or with
genetic mutations in these aging-related pathways, healthspan is equal to
lifespan. They eventually die, but they don't get sick."
Overweight Older People Live Longer - WebMD, 1/28/10 -
"people who met the criteria for being overweight
were 17% less likely to die compared to people of normal weight ... In the
newly reported research, overweight study participants in their 70s followed
for up to 10 years had a 13% lower risk of death than participants
classified as normal weight ... Obese and normal-weight study participants
had a similar risk of death over the 10 years of follow-up. Underweight
study participants had the highest risk of death, even after the researchers
adjusted for the wasting effects of disease"
Calorie restriction: Scientists take important step toward 'fountain of
youth' - Science Daily, 12/26/09 - "They found
that the normal cells lived longer, and many of the precancerous cells died,
when given less glucose. Gene activity was also measured under these same
conditions. The reduced glucose caused normal cells to have a higher
activity of the gene that dictates the level of telomerase, an enzyme that
extends their lifespan and lower activity of a gene (p16) that slows their
growth. Epigenetic effects (effects not due to gene mutations) were found to
be a major cause in changing the activity of these genes as they reacted to
decreased glucose levels" - See my
Insulin and Aging page. Insulin controls glucose levels. Insulin
resistance causes high glucose.
Scientists find molecular trigger that helps prevent aging and disease -
Science Daily, 11/18/09 - "diabetes reduces
activation of CBP, leading Dr. Mobbs to conclude that a high-calorie diet
that leads to diabetes would have the opposite effect of dietary restriction
and would accelerate aging"
Click here of a 10/5/09 news clip (I put it on YouTube) that claims that
metformin may provide the same anti-aging
benefits as calorie restriction (you won't need to look like a POW).
Metformin is another one I take for anti-aging. In addition to the calorie
restriction type benefits, see my
Insulin and Aging page.
Way You Eat May Affect Your Risk For Breast Cancer - Science Daily,
Reduced Diet Thwarts Aging, Disease In Monkeys - Science Daily, 7/9/09 -
"We observed that caloric restriction reduced the
risk of developing an age-related disease by a factor of three and increased
survival ... The incidence of cancerous tumors and cardiovascular disease in
animals on a restricted diet was less than half that seen in animals
permitted to eat freely. Remarkably, while diabetes or impaired glucose
regulation is common in monkeys that can eat all they want, it has yet to be
observed in any animal on a restricted diet" Makes you wonder why the
next is true:
Study: Overweight People Live Longer - WebMD, 6/25/09 -
"There is more evidence that people who are
overweight tend to live longer than people who are underweight, normal
weight, or obese ... Those classified as underweight were 73% more likely to
die ... Those classified as extremely obese with BMI of 35 or greater were
36% more likely to die ... Those classified as obese with BMI 30-34.9 had
about the same risk of death ... Those classified as overweight with BMI
25-29.9 were 17% less likely to die"
Glucose-To-Glycerol Conversion In Long-lived Yeast Provides Anti-aging
Effects - Science Daily, 5/13/09
Calorie Restriction Causes Temporal Changes In Liver Metabolism -
Science Daily, 5/4/09
So Sweet: Over-consumption Of Sugar Linked To Aging - Science Daily,
3/9/09 - "We know that lifespan can be extended in
animals by restricting calories such as sugar intake ...it's not sugar
itself that is important in this process but the ability of cells to sense
its presence ... the lifespan of yeast cells increased when glucose was
decreased from their diet. They then asked whether the increase in lifespan
was due to cells decreasing their ability to produce energy or to the
decrease in signal to the cells by the glucose sensor ... cells unable to
consume glucose as energy source are still sensitive to the pro-aging
effects of glucose. Conversely, obliterating the sensor that measures the
levels of glucose significantly increased lifespan"
Slowing Aging: Anti-aging Pathway Enhances Cell Stress Response -
Science Daily, 2/19/09 - "The researchers discovered
a new molecular relationship critical to keeping cells healthy across a long
span of time: a protein called SIRT1, important for caloric restriction and
lifespan and activated by resveratrol, regulates heat shock factor 1 (HSF1),
keeping it active. HSF1 in turn senses the presence of damaged proteins in
the cell and elevates the expression of molecular chaperones to keep a
cell's proteins in a folded, functional state. Regulation of this pathway
has a direct beneficial effect to cells ... decrease in SIRT1 may help
explain why protein misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's,
Huntington's and adult-onset diabetes, are diseases of aging" - See
resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
Fewer Calories, Better Memory? - WebMD, 1/26/09 -
"older men and women who follow a restricted-calorie
diet score better on verbal memory tests than those who do not make such
Eating Less May Not Extend Human Life: Caloric Restriction May Benefit Only
Obese Mice - Science Daily, 1/26/09 - "For lean
mice – and possibly for lean humans, the authors of a new study predict –
the anti-aging strategy known as caloric restriction may be a pointless,
frustrating and even dangerous exercise ... Today there are a lot of very
healthy people who look like skeletons because they bought into this ...
Contrary to what is widely believed, caloric restriction does not extend
(the) life span of all strains of mice ... caloric restriction begun in
older mice – both in DBA and leaner C57 individuals – actually shortened
Major Theories About Human Cellular Aging Supported By New Research -
Science Daily, 12/30/08 - "old age is the final
stage of a developmental program AND the result of a lifelong accumulation
of unrepaired cellular and molecular damage ... When fatty acids build up,
yeast cells explode from within, scattering their contents and spreading
inflammation to neighboring cells ... In addition to cell death, the
accumulation of fatty acids sets off chemical reactions that ultimately
produce a lipid called diacylglycerol, which impairs many of the yeast's
stress response-related defenses ... Low-calorie diets, which have been
shown to increase lifespan and delay age-related disorders in nonhuman
primates and other organisms, altered the way fats were processed in the
Starving Cells Prolong Life - Science Daily, 10/13/08
Differences Between People And Animals On Calorie Restriction - Science
Daily, 9/24/08 - "In the majority of the animal
models of longevity, extended lifespan involves pathways related to a growth
factor called IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), which is produced
primarily in the liver. Production is stimulated by growth hormone and can
be reduced by fasting or by insensitivity to growth hormone. In
calorie-restricted animals, levels of circulating IGF-1 decline between 30
percent and 40 percent ... For years, we have been following a cohort of
people from the CR Society who have been on long-term calorie restriction.
We found no difference in IGF-1 levels between people on calorie restriction
and those who are not ... The CR Society members, who call themselves
CRONies (Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition), had been on a
calorie-restriction diet for an average of seven years when Fontana did the
measurements, but their IGF-1 levels were virtually identical to sedentary
people who ate a standard, Western diet ... there are two major influences
on IGF-1 levels: calorie intake and protein intake ... His team has been
following a population of strict vegans for several years. They tend to eat
less protein than the CRONies from the CR Society, so he compared IGF-1
levels between the two groups ... The vegans had significantly less
circulating IGF-1 ... The strict vegans took in about 10 percent of their
total calories from protein, whereas those on calorie restriction tended to
get about 23 or 24 percent of calories from protein ... If our research is
on the right track, maybe humans don't need to be so calorie restricted.
Limiting protein intake to .7 or .8 grams per kilogram per day might be more
Cutting Calories Could Limit Muscle Wasting In Later Years - Science
Daily, 9/16/08 - "The researchers found increasing
amounts of iron in the muscle cells of aging rats fed a typical unrestricted
diet. The older the rats got, the more iron accumulated in the mitochondria
and the more damage was done to its RNA and DNA. Rats of the same ages that
were kept on a calorie-restricted diet — about 60 percent of the food
typically ingested — seemed to maintain more normal iron levels in
Looking For The Fountain Of Youth? Cut Your Calories, Research Suggests
- Science Daily, 7/3/08 - "While scientists do not
know how calorie restriction affects the aging process in rodents, one
popular hypothesis is that it slows aging by decreasing a thyroid hormone,
triiodothyronine (T3), which then slows metabolism and tissue aging"
- All the studies I've read seem to support the opposite:
Longer-lived Rodents Have Lower Levels Of Thyroid Hormone - Science
Daily, 10/12/06 - "T4 levels varied
significantly between all of the groups, with the shorter-lived groups
having higher levels of T4 than longer-lived groups ... However, because
T3, levels did not differ significantly among all the groups, further
research in this area using larger sample sizes (numbers of rodents in
each group) is needed"
ACUTE EFFECTS OF TRIIODOTHYRONINE REPLACEMENT THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH
CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND LOW-T3 SYNDROME: A RANDOMIZED,
PLACEBO-CONTROLLED STUDY - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jan 2 -
"Low-triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome is a predictor of poor outcome in
patients with cardiac dysfunction ... dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) ... In
DC patients, short-term synthetic L-T3 replacement therapy significantly
improved neuroendocrine profile and ventricular performance"
Low triiodothyronine: a strong predictor of outcome in acute stroke
- Eur J Clin Invest. 2007 Aug;37(8):651-7 - "The
1-year mortality was 27.34% for low T3 and 19.37% for normal T3 cases (P
= 0.006). A smaller percentage of patients with low T3 values were
independent at 1 year compared to those with normal T3 values [54.2% vs.
68.7%, chi(2) = 12.09, P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 0.53"
Natural killer activity and thyroid hormone levels in young and elderly
persons - Gerontology 2001 Sep-Oct;47(5):282-8 -
"Decreased serum concentrations of total T(3) may
contribute to low NK activity in the 'almost healthy' subgroup of the
Does low tri-iodothyronine independently predict mortality in elderly
hospitalised patients? - Int J Clin Pract 2001 Jul-Aug;55(6):409-10
"Our study shows an association of low serum T3 with
patient mortality in elderly hospitalised patients"
Substance In Red Wine, Resveratrol, Found To Keep Hearts Young - Science
Daily, 6/4/08 - "Resveratrol is active in much lower
doses than previously thought and mimics a significant fraction of the
profile of caloric restriction at the gene expression level ... In animals
on a restricted diet, 90 percent of those heart genes experienced altered
gene expression profiles, while low doses of resveratrol thwarted
age-related change in 92 percent. The new findings, say the study's authors,
were associated with prevention of the decline in heart function associated
with aging" - See
resveratrol at Amazon.com.
Low-dose resveratrol may slow ageing: for mice at least - Nutra USA,
6/4/08 - "animals in the calorie-restriction and
low-dose resveratrol groups had altered gene expression profiles in 90 and
92 per cent, respectively, in the heart ... In short, a glass of wine or
food or supplements that contain even small doses of resveratrol are likely
to represent "a robust intervention in the retardation of cardiac ageing,""
resveratrol at Amazon.com.
wine may protect heart from aging’s toll - MSNBC. 6/3/08 -
"Resveratrol at low doses can retard some aspects of
the aging process, including heart aging, and it may do so by mimicking some
of the effects of caloric restriction, which is known to retard aging in
several tissues and extend life span" - See
It Comes To Living Longer, It's Better To Go Hungry Than Go Running, Mouse
Study Suggests - Science Daily, 5/14/08 - "at
least two studies which examined people who engage in high-volume exercise
versus people who restricted their calorie intake, had a similar outcome:
caloric restriction has physiological benefits that exercise alone does not
... One theory is that exercise places stress on the body, which can result
in damage to the tissues and DNA. Another theory is that caloric restriction
leads to physiological changes which benefit the body" - I still
think it boils down to the ravages of higher insulin and blood sugar which
increase advanced glycation
end products a major cause of aging.
How Dietary Restriction Slows Down Aging - Science Daily, 4/17/08
Severely restricting calories could lead to longer life - Nutra USA,
Severely Restricted Diet Linked To Physical Fitness Into Old Age -
Science Daily, 10/25/07
Eat Less To Live Longer: Calorie Restriction Linked To Long Healthy Lives
- Science Daily, 9/20/07
Dietary Restriction Cleans Cells - Science Daily, 8/23/07
Eat Less, Live Longer? Gene Links Calorie Restriction To Longevity -
Science Daily, 5/2/07
Dogs Lived 1.8 Years Longer On Low Calorie Diet: Gut Flora May Explain It
- Science Daily, 4/19/07
How Eating Less Might Make You Live Longer - Science Daily, 3/5/07 -
"even short-term caloric restriction can produce
beneficial physiological changes leading to improved health. Whether caloric
restriction and the associated health benefits can be sustained over longer
term remains to be established in humans"
Body Composition May Be Key Player In Controlling Cancer Risks - Science
Daily, 1/3/07 - "This study suggests that body
composition, being lean as opposed to being obese, has a greater protective
effect against cancer"
- Weight Loss From
Calorie Restriction Decreases BMD in Older Adults - Medscape, 12/13/06 -
"weight loss from calorie restriction produced significant decreases in
bone-mineral density (BMD) in older adults"
for the Ages: A Prescription That May Extend Life - New York Times,
10/31/06 - "One leading candidate, a newly
synthesized form of resveratrol — an antioxidant present in large amounts in
red wine — is already being tested in patients. It may eventually be the
first of a new class of anti-aging drugs. Extrapolating from recent animal
findings, Dr. Richard A. Miller, a pathologist at the University of
Michigan, estimated that a pill mimicking the effects of calorie restriction
might increase human life span to about 112 healthy years ... Some
researchers have even described Type 2 diabetes, which is marked by
insensitivity to the hormone insulin, as simply an accelerated form of
Calorie Restriction without Hunger!
- Life Extension Magazine, 7/06 - "excess insulin
functions as a death hormone that devastates virtually every cell and organ
system in the body"
Calorie Restriction May Prevent Alzheimer's Through Promotion Of Longevity
Program In The Brain - Science Daily, 6/14/06 -
"a high caloric intake based on saturated fat
promotes AD type beta-amyloidosis, while caloric restriction based on
reduced carbohydrate intake is able to prevent it"
- Metabolic Benefits
of Calorie Restriction - Medscape, 6/12/06 -
"A total of 48 overweight but otherwise healthy
adults (body-mass index, 25-30 kg/m2; mean age, 38) were assigned to one of
four groups: weight maintenance, 25% calorie restriction, 12.5% calorie
restriction plus exercise, or very low calorie intake (890 calories daily
until weight was reduced by 15%) ... At 6 months, all three intervention
groups showed significant weight loss (10%-14% of baseline weight), as well
as significant reductions in fasting insulin levels and DNA damage"
Calorie Restriction Appears Better Than Exercise At Slowing Primary Aging
- Science Daily, 5/31/06 - "Sedentary rats who ate a
standard diet had the shortest average life-spans," Holloszy says. "Those
who exercised by running on a wheel lived longer, but animals on calorie
restriction lived even longer"
- Trim Calories
for Healthier Aging? - WebMD, 5/10/06
Cutting Calories Slightly Can Reduce Aging Damage - Science Daily,
"feeding rats just 8 percent fewer calories a day
and moderately increasing the animals' activity extended their average
lifespan and significantly overturned the negative effects of cellular aging
on liver function and overall health ... the study results support the
theory that cell death and aging-related organ damage are caused by unstable
molecules known as free radicals and by cellular oxidation and inflammation"
Big Study Looks at Longevity-Low Calorie Link - Intelihealth, 4/26/06
Thinner And Younger - Science Daily, 4/5/06
- Calorie Restriction
May Improve Biomarkers of Longevity - Medscape, 4/4/06
Calories, Boost Longevity? - WebMD, 4/4/06 -
"By the study's end, fasting insulin and DNA damage
had dropped for all participants whose calories had been limited, but not
for the comparison group"
- Starve Yourself
to Live Longer? - ABC News, 4/4/06 -
"the decreased body temperature and insulin levels
are particularly important in this study because they are good indicators of
increased longevity and are often referred to as the biomarkers of
- Low-Cal Diet
May Slow Heart's Aging - WebMD, 1/17/06
Caloric Restriction Appears to Prevent Primary Aging in the Heart -
Doctor's Guide, 1/12/06 - "This decline in diastolic
function is a marker of primary aging ... Diastolic function declines in
most people as they get older, but in this study we found that diastolic
function in calorie-restricted people resembled diastolic function in
individuals about 15 years younger ... Our hypothesis is that low-grade,
chronic inflammation is mediating primary aging"
Researchers Find Pathways Linking Caloric Restriction To Aging Process -
Science Daily, 11/18/05
Bare-minimum diet: Is long life the payoff? - USA Today, 10/23/05 -
"very low-calorie diet seems to shield these animals
from type 2 diabetes, a common disease of old age ... The average blood
pressure for people on the diet was 100/60 — about what is expected for an
average 10-year-old ... mice on the diet, which provides food at
near-starvation levels, appear cranky. "If you take the lid off the cage,
they immediately bite you,""
- How Cutting
Calories May Increase Longevity - WebMD, 10/13/05 -
"mice that were fed 30% to 40% fewer calories
produced more nitric oxide than those who followed an unrestricted diet"
Low-Calorie Diet Won't Extend Life - WebMD, 8/30/05
Caloric Restriction Won't Dramatically Extend Life Span In Humans: UCLA
Research - Science Daily, 8/30/05
- Eat less for a healthier
life - MSNBC, 5/6/05 -
"Laboratory studies show that calorie restriction
can lead to fewer and smaller breast cancers. It also appears to inhibit all
cancers by slowing down the development of cancer cells, increasing their
self-destruction and reducing DNA damage"
- Do Carbs,
Calories Affect Alzheimer's Risk? - WebMD, 1/13/05 -
"mice eating fewer calories and carbohydrates than
those allowed to eat all they wanted showed no signs of Alzheimer's-like
disease, even though they had been bred to have the condition"
Riverside Professor Receives First Age-Reversal Prize - Science Daily,
"According to Spindler's research, the fewer
calories an animal consumes - provided malnutrition is avoided - the slower
an animal ages and the lower the death rate from cancer, heart disease and
- Caloric Restriction
and Life Expectancy - Medscape, 12/22/04
- Cutting Calories
May Cut Parkinson's Risk - Doctor's Guide, 13/13/04
Save Up Your Energy Reserves For A Longer Life! - Science Daily,
Restriction Lowers Heart Risk - WebMD, 4/19/04
Restriction Prolongs Life, Even Late - WebMD, 3/23/04
Study: Low-Calorie Diet Extends Life - Intelihealth, 3/23/04
- Restricting calories may
increase life span - MSNBC, 3/22/04 -
"a strict, low-calorie diet increased the life span
of aged mice by more than 40 percent ... the new research shows that even
19-month-old mice, about the human equivalent of 60 to 65 years, can have a
longer life when eating fewer calories"
Calories, Live Longer? - WebMD, 12/31/03
- Eat Less to Live Longer?
- Dr. Weil, 12/29/03
Fasting Benefits Glucose Metabolism, Nerve Cells - Physician's Weekly,
"skipping meals frequently can help mice maintain
healthier glucose and insulin levels ... when mice were given a neurotoxin
mimicking the effects of Alzheimer's in humans, the subjects on the
intermittent fasting diet were more resistant to nerve damage or death than
mice with unlimited or reduced calorie diets ... mice on the fasting regimen
were more likely to produce the protein BDNF, which protects the growth and
health of nerve cells"
BioMarker Pharmaceuticals Develops Anti-Aging Therapy - Life Extension
Magazine, 6/03 -
"The BioMarker scientists found that all the
glucoregulatory agents reproduced some of the gene expression effects of CR
[calorie restriction], but that
metformin was the undisputed star of the
group, being twice as effective as the others in reproducing the effects of
Meals Keeps Rodents Healthy - WebMD, 4/28/03
Survival to 90 Years Linked to Low Weight in Young Adulthood and Exercise
- Doctor's Guide, 4/8/03 -
"baseline height and weight were not associated with
mortality. However, a higher weight at age 21
was associated with increased odds of dying before reaching 90 years
(OR=1.04 per 5 lb increase, P 0.0001). Those who exercised were 24-31% less
likely to die by the age of 90 (OR=0.76, P 0.0001 for less than 1 hour per
day, OR=0.69, P 0.0001 for 1 hour or more per day). Similarly, being in the
mid tertile of BMI at baseline (22-24 for men, 20-23 for women) was
associated with decreased odds of dying before age 90 (OR=0.70, P 0.0001)"
Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Life Span in Calorie Restricted Mice
- J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Oct 13 -
"C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups (a 5% CR control group and three
40% CR groups) and fed diets with soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFAs), fish oil
(high in n-3 PUFAs), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty
acids) as the primary lipid source. Life span was increased (p < .05) in all
CR groups compared to the Control mice. Life span was also increased (p <
.05) in the CR lard mice compared to animals consuming either the CR fish or
soybean oil diets"
Efficacy of Fasting and Calorie Restriction (FCR) on Mood and Depression
among Ageing Men - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(8):674-680 -
"FCR (Fasting and Calorie Restriction) ... A total
of 31 subjects completed the study (n=16, FCR and n=15, control) ... Our
findings show that a FCR dietary regime is effective in improving mood
states and nutritional status among ageing men"
Life-long caloric restriction elicits pronounced protection of the aged
myocardium: a role for AMPK - Mech Ageing Dev. 2010 Oct 7
Calorie restriction: what recent results suggest for the future of ageing
- Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 May;40(5):440-50 - "the
search for substances that can reproduce the beneficial physiologic
responses of CR without a requisite calorie intake reduction, termed CR
mimetics (CRMs), has gained momentum. Material and methods Recent articles
describing health and lifespan results of CR in nonhuman primates and
short-term human studies are discussed. Additional consideration is given to
the rapidly expanding search for CRMs. Results The first results from a
long-term, randomized, controlled CR study in nonhuman primates showing
statistically significant benefits on longevity have now been reported.
Additionally, positive results from short-term, randomized, controlled CR
studies in humans are suggestive of potential health and longevity gains,
while test of proposed CRMs (including rapamycin, resveratrol,
2-deoxyglucose and metformin) have shown both positive and mixed results in
restriction leads to high marrow adiposity and low bone mass in growing mice
- J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Mar 12
Resveratrol Modulates Tumor Cell Proliferation and Protein Translation via
SIRT1-Dependent AMPK Activation - J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Nov 20 -
"Similar to those effects associated with caloric
restriction (CR), resveratrol has multiple beneficial activities, such as
increased life span and delay in the onset of diseases associated with aging
... Here, we show that resveratrol activated AMPK in both ER-positive and
ER-negative breast cancer cells ... Here, we show that resveratrol activated
AMPK in both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer cells. Once
activated, AMPK inhibited 4E-BP1 signaling and mRNA translation via
mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Moreover, we also found that AMPK
activity mediated by resveratrol in cancer cells was due to inducing the
expression of Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1) via elevation in the cellular
NAD(+)/NADH in ER-positive cells. To our knowledge, we demonstrate here for
the first time that resveratrol induces the expression of SIRT1 protein in
human cancer cells. These observations raise the possibility that SIRT1
functions as a novel upstream regulator for AMPK signaling and may
additionally modulate tumor cell proliferation. Targeting SIRT1/AMPK
signaling by resveratrol may have potential therapeutic implications for
cancer and age-related diseases" - See
resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
Antiaging, longevity and calorie restriction - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab
Care. 2009 Oct 21 - "Major negative effects in
humans were loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and loss of bone ...
Dietary restriction in rodents has not been shown to be effective when
started in older rodents. Weight loss in humans over 60 years of age is
associated with increased mortality, hip fracture and increased
institutionalization. Calorie restriction in older persons should be
considered experimental and potentially dangerous. Exercise at present
appears to be a preferable treatment for older persons"
Omega-3 as well as caloric restriction prevent the age-related modifications
of cholesterol metabolism - Mech Ageing Dev. 2008 Sep 26 -
"both caloric restriction and Omega-3 supplemented
diets are able to prevent hypercholesterolemia, by regulating HMG-CoAR
activation state by controlling ROS production and p38 phosphorylation.
Moreover also the age-dependent loss of LDLr membrane exposition is
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lipoic acid supplementation can mimic or block the effect of dietary
restriction on life span -Mech Ageing Dev. 2008 Apr 22;129(6):341-348 -
"Ad libitum feeding a diet supplemented with lipoic
acid can therefore act as mimetic of DR to extend survival" - See
alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
Effect of 6-month calorie restriction on biomarkers of longevity, metabolic
adaptation, and oxidative stress in overweight individuals: a randomized
controlled trial - JAMA. 2006 Apr 5;295(13):1539-48 -
"At 6 months, fasting insulin levels were
significantly reduced from baseline in the intervention groups"
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